A Study of Sepia Biochemistry From MIT Perspective
We all know, our homeopathic drug sepia is prepared from ink of cuttle fish. It contains a number of chemicals in a variety of different concentrations, depending on the species. However, its main constituents are melanin and mucus. It can also contain, among other things, tyrosinase, dopamine and l-dopa, and small amounts of amino acids, including taurine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and lysine. Sepia ink also contains large amounts of aquatic minerals such as iodine, sodium, fluorine, iodine etc absorbed from sea water in which they live.
That means, sepia is not a single drug as we are made to believe. it is a compound drug. During drug proving, all these different chemical constituents of sepia act in their individual capacities up on different biological targets during drug proving, produce molecular errors that are expressed through vaious groups of subjective and objective symptoms.
When potentized, these different chemical molecules undergo molecular imprinting as individual molecules. as such, potentized sepia will be a combination of diverse types of molecular imprints that represent different types of constituent chemical molecules. When used as therapeutic agent, these individual molecular imprints bind to specific pathogenic molecules having complementary conformation.
Cuttlefish are marine animals of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda, which also includes squid, octopuses and nautiluses. Despite their name, cuttlefish are not fish but molluscs.
Cuttlefish are sometimes referred to as the “chameleons of the sea” because of their remarkable ability to rapidly alter their skin color at will. Cuttlefish change color and pattern, including of light polarisation and even texture to communicate to other cuttlefish, to camouflage themselves, and in deimatic display to warn off potential predators.
Sepia ink is a dark pigment released into water by most species of cephalopod, usually as an escape mechanism.
The ink is released from the ink sacs located between the gills, and is dispersed more widely by accompanying its release with a jet of water from the siphon. Its dark color is caused by its main constituent, melanin.
Each species of cephalopod produces slightly differently coloured inks; generally, octopuses produce black ink, squid ink is blue-black and cuttlefish ink is brown.
Sepia ink contains a number of chemicals in a variety of different concentrations, depending on the species. However, its main constituents are melanin and mucus. It can also contain, among other things, tyrosinase, dopamine and l-dopa, and small amounts of amino acids, including taurine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and lysine. Sepia ink also contains large amounts of aquatic minerals suchas iodine, sodium, fluorine, iodine etc absorbed from sea water in which they live.
When potentized, sepia contains molecular imprints of all these constituent chemical molecules, which are the active principles of potentized sepia.
In molecular biology, Tyrosinase refers to an oxidase, which is the rate limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin. It is mainly involved in two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis; firstly, the hydroxylation of a monophenol and secondly, the conversion of an o-diphenol to the corresponding o-quinone. o-Quinone undergoes several reactions to eventually form melanin. Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme present in plant and animal tissues that catalyzes the production of melanin and other pigments from tyrosine by oxidation, as in the blackening of a peeled or sliced potato exposed to air. It is found inside melanosomes.
A mutation in the tyrosinase gene resulting in impaired tyrosinase production leads to type I oculocutaneous albinism, a hereditary disorder.
Tyrosinase activity is very important. If uncontrolled during melanoma, it results in increased melanin synthesis. Several polyphenols including flavonoids or stilbenoid, substrate analogues, free radical scavengers and copper chelators have been known to inhibit tyrosinase.
Molecular imprints of tyrosinase molecules contained in potentized sepia can remove the molecular errors caused by various types of inhibitors that cause certain types of albinism, leucoderma and hypopigmentations.
Molecular imprints of certain chemical constituents of sepia act homeopathically by binding to the pathogenic molecules that inhibit melanocortin receptors in melanocytes, which are the natural binding sites of melanocyte stimulating hormones that induce production of melanin, the skin pigment of our body
Melanocortin receptors lie within the cell membrane, and is signalled by melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) released by the pituitary gland. When activated by MSH, it initiates a complex signaling cascade that leads to the production of the brown or black pigment eumelanin. In contrast, the receptor can also be antagonized by agouti signalling peptide (ASIP), which reverts the cell back to producing the yellow or red phaeomelanin.
Molecular imprints of melainin, dopamine and l-dopa, taurine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and lysine, iodine fluorine, bromine sodium etc contained in potentized sepia decide the diverse types its homeopathic therapeutic actions when used according to similia similibus curentur.
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