REDEFINING HOMEOPATHY

Chandran K C Explains Homeopathy As Molecular Imprints Therapeutics (MIT)

Volume XVII- Selected Facebook Updates And Tweets Of Chandran K C On Scientific Homeopathy


What you call ‘spiritual experience’ are actually a certain class of phenomena related with the functions of central nervous system, which is a highly complex organized form of matter. All those phenomena are associated with the complex biochemical interactions of chemical molecules in the brain. There is no ‘spirit’ or ‘spiritual experience’ existing without a ‘material’ brain and the complex chemical processes happening there. All these are the subjects to be studied by SCIENCE, which is beyond any doubt ‘materialistic’.

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SCIENCE is all about the study of matter and material phenomena of this universe. I do not agree with the concept of ‘spiritual science’. If your idea is ‘spiritual’, it is not ‘science’.

If you think homeopathy is ‘spiritual science’, kindly discuss it some where else- not on my pages. I want to discuss homeopathy as a ‘materialistic science’, subject to the methods and paradigms of modern scientific knowledge system- as MEDICAL SCIENCE.

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To understand the MIT explanations regarding the biological mechanism of homeopathic cure, you should acquire a minimum knowledge of biochemistry, including the kinetics of protein chemistry, protein inhibitions and reactivation. Without this basic knowledge, everything I talk about MIT will fly over your head!

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‘MOLECULAR IMPRINTS’ is the keyword in the scientific understanding of homeopathy. Any ‘theory’ of homeopathy that is not based on the concept of ‘molecular imprints’ cannot be considered scientific, and cannot explain the ‘biological mechanism’ of homeopathic cure in a way fitting to the existing scientific knowledge system.

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To be realistic in their approach to homeopathy, scientists, homeopaths as well as general public should accept the following points:

1. Homeopathy really works.

2. Nobody so far knows how homeopathy works.

3. All existing ‘theories’ about homeopathy so far propagated by homeopaths are unscientific and irrational.

4. Scientists should rationally deal with the questions ‘does homeopathy work’ and ‘how homeopathy works’ as two separate issues, and search for scientific answers without any prejudice.

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Any talk about “scientific homeopathy” is futile, if it does not answer the following fundamental questions:

A. ‘What are the active principles of potentized drugs’?

B. ‘What is the biological mechanism of homeopathic cure involved in similia similibus curentur’?

To be scientifically acceptable, the answers provided should be fitting to the existing scientific knowledge system regarding the kinetics of bio-molecular interactions as envisaged by modern biochemistry and pharmacodynamics.

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Homeopathy transforms the DISEASE-PRODUCING properties of substances into DISEASE-CURING properties through an innovative process known as POTENTIZATION.

Substances produce diseases when their constituent chemical molecules bind to the biological molecules in the living organism and produce molecular inhibitions that results in pathological changes in the bio-molecular vital processes.

During potentization, disease-producing substances are converted into disease-curing substances through a process of MOLECULAR IMPRINTING. Molecular imprints act by a molecular mechanism just reverse to that of their original molecules, and can thus remove the molecular inhibitions caused by pathological molecules that are similar to the original substance used for molecular imprinting.

This MIT explanation fits well to the existing scientific knowledge regarding molecular kinetics of pathology and pharmacodynamics.

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Many homeopaths seem to believe that stories of CURED CASES reported by physicians or patients are enough for scientific validation of homeopathy. They should understand, scientific method never accept anecdotes as scientific proof.

Any occult practitioner, any astrologer, any voodoo practitioner, any faith healer, any charlatan will have a lot of anecdotes and ‘live witnesses’ to support his claims. That will not make those claims scientifically valid.

HOMEOPATHY SHOULD BE PROVED BY SCIENTIFIC METHOD- NOT ANECDOTES.

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Most unscientific and absurd concepts and notions still dominate the mindset of many who ‘represent’ homeopathy on international platforms, and are known to be “great advocates” of homeopathy.

They raise questions about the ‘scientificness’ of modern science, and engage in ‘scholarly’ discourses regarding the futility of science and scientific method!

All sorts of ‘pseudoscientific’, ‘spiritualistic’, ‘energy medicine’ theories are propagated, which undermine all the scientific credentials of homeopathy.

They mix up homeopathy with all those nonsense ‘treatments’ practiced under CAM umbrella. DISTANCE HEALING, HAIR TRANSMISSION, PC RESONANCE REMEDIES, DREAM PROVING, MEDITATION PROVING, REFLEXOLOGY, DOWSING, RADIONICS…. list of occult practiced and propagated in the label of homeopathy is really mind blogging.

And our friends declare that all these people belong to ‘homeopathic community’, as they are “institutionally qualified homeopaths”!!

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There are a lot of controversial topics in homeopathy. We cannot avoid discussing them. Anybody thinking these “controversial talks” are unnecessay, can conveniently leave my page. I will never tag you, or post my views on your page.

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Molecular explanation of the phenomenon known as ‘water memory’:

Search into the mysteries of homeopathic potentization inevitably leads us to the study of the wonderful physical and chemical properties of water and alcohol, which constitute the medium used to prepare the ultra dilute preparations. Water is the the most common and abundant mineral on earth. We may begin our discussion by looking into the wealth of information already collected by modern material sciences on this subject.

‘Molecular memory of water’ is a rarely understood phenomenon, and is a subject of much controversies and speculations in the world of science. Even now, scientists differ much in their opinion regarding this phenomenon. Final outcome of these controversies will have great concern and significance in the realm of homoeopathy. Let us examine some details of the nature and essence of this controversial phenomenon.

Until recently, we knew precious little about various miraculous properties of water, though we find it in plenty around us, and utilize freely in our everyday life. Even the highly equipped scientific community has begun to turn its serious attention to the minute level study of water only in recent times. The secrets being revealed in these studies are really amazing, and may help us in solving the mysteries haunting homeopathic potentization.

Around seventy percent of the surface of earth is covered with water. 45-70% of human body mass consist of water. This ratio slightly changes with age, and it may be said that human body becomes more and more dry with aging. 30-40 % of water contained in our body is seen in the intra-cellular fluid,12-16% as extra-cellular , and 5 % in blood plasma. 2% of water is in lymph, and 1-3% in different body cavities. This wide spread presence of water in the living body indicates the paramount importance of its role in various biological processes. About 2 litters of water enters our body from outside, along with food every day. A small quantity of water is produced in the body itself as a by-product of metabolism.

As far as we know, life cannot exist without water. It is considered that the phenomenon of life originated on this earth only because of the presence of water. All the biochemical processes in the organism take place with the involvement of water. In the absence of water, essential biological molecules such as proteins and DNA undergo structural changes, and become inactivated. Water is the essential condition of existence of life. Liquid water has importance as a solvent, a solute, a reactant and a biomolecule, structuring proteins, nucleic acids and cells and controlling our consciousness. The complex three dimensional formations of protein molecules, which are much important in their biological functioning, is due to the hydration properties of water.

Why this simple hydrogen oxide(H2O), which is formed by the union of two hydrogen atoms and a single oxygen atom happen to play such a crucial role in the origin and existence of life? What are the factors that make water distinct from other similar chemical compounds such as hydrogen sulphide?

The answers to this question lies in the wonderful physico–chemical properties of water, arising from its peculiar super-molecular structure. Water is a solvent with higher polarity than similar liquids. H–O–H have bond angle of 105 degrees. That means, water molecule is a dipole. Because of this peculiarity, water molecules can exist like a super-molecular network by forming hydrogen bonds between themselves. A minimum number of five water molecules will be contained in this network. Such five-molecule formations are called ‘pentamers’. Most of the wonderful properties of water arise from this capacity of peculiar hydrogen bonding and supra-molecular formations.

Water molecules are normally considered to be in a state of random movement in their liquid form. But recent studies have shown that water molecules move not as individual molecules, but as supramolecular clusters. We all know that water exists as ice crystals in its solid form. But it has been recently observed that in its short range structure, water exist as nanocrystals even in its liquid form. We know, water formed by melting of ice behaves exactly as if in a state of liquid crystals. The lattice structure which is formed through hydration bonds is responsible for this phenomenon.

A lot of research work is recently undertaken all over the world regarding the phenomenon of peculiar supra-molecular formations of water. The uncommon physico– chemical properties of water are the result of this poly-molecular structure at supra-molecular level. Water becomes an essential material for the existence of life on earth, by its strange properties such as high polarity, anomalous expansion, anomalous boiling and melting points, high viscosity, surface tension, thermal storage capacity, high specific heat, hydration properties etc.

Water molecules(H2O) are symmetric (point group C2ν), with two mirror planes of symmetry and a 2-fold rotation axis. The hydrogen atoms in this molecule may possess parallel or anti-parallel nuclear spin. The water molecule consists of two light hydrogen atoms(H) and a relatively heavy oxygen atom(O). The approximately 16-fold difference in mass between hydrogen and oxygen gives ease of rotation, and the significant relative movements of the hydrogen nuclei, which are in constant and significant relative movement.

Although not often perceived as such, water is a very reactive molecule at a high concentration. This reactivity of water molecules, however, is greatly moderated at ambient temperatures due to the extensive hydrogen bonding between them. Water molecule possess a strongly nucleophilic oxygen atom that enables it for many of its biological functions, as well as ionizing to produce reactive hydrogen and hydroxide ions. Reduction of the hydrogen bonding at high temperatures, or due to electromagnetic fields, results in greater reactivity of the water molecules. ‘Magnetized’ water will be more reactive, with strange properties. Much experienced phenomenon of loss of medicinal properties of homeopathic potencies, when subjected to influence of magnetic fields and electrical fields could be well explained now. This also gives an indication to the role of hydrogen bonding in potentization.

As liquid water is so common-place in our everyday lives, it is often regarded as a ‘normal’ liquid. In reality, water is most ‘abnormal’ as a liquid, behaving as a quite different material at low temperatures compared to that when it is hot. It has often been stated that life depends on these anomalous properties of water. In particular, the high cohesion between molecules gives it a high freezing and melting point, such that we and our planet exist bathed in liquid water even at high ambient temperatures. In the absence of hydrogen bonding, all water on earth would have vaporized even at very low temperatures. The large heat capacity, high thermal conductivity and high water content in organisms contribute to thermal regulation and prevent local temperature fluctuations, thus allowing us to more easily control our body temperature. The high latent heat of evaporation gives resistance to dehydration and considerable evaporative cooling. Water is an excellent solvent due to its polarity, high dielectric constant and small size, particularly for polar and ionic compounds and salts. It has unique hydration properties towards biological macromolecules (particularly proteins and nucleic acids) that determine their three-dimensional structures, and hence their functions, in solution. This hydration forms gels that can reversibly undergo the gel-sol phase transitions that underlie many cellular mechanisms. Water ionize and allows easy proton exchange between molecules, so contributing to the richness of the ionic interactions in biology.

Essentially, ‘hydrogen bonding’ is a special type of dipole force. It is a force of attraction formed between partially charged atoms being part of different molecules. The reason for this bonding is the partial positive charge attained by hydrogen. Hydrogen is capable of establishing similar bonds with the atoms of nitrogen, fluorine and oxygen. That is to say that the basis of hydrogen bonding is the attraction between one hydrogen atom which is part of a molecule which is attached to oxygen or nitrogen and oxygen or nitrogen which remains part of another molecule. This force is less powerful than the covalent bonds which keeps the atoms inside molecule bound together. But it may be strange that these less powerful bonds are responsible for the wonderful physico–chemical properties and biological relevance of water.

In the ordinary liquid state, in spite of 80% of the electrons being engaged in bonding, the three atoms in water do not stay together, as the hydrogen atoms are constantly exchanged between water molecules due to protonation/deprotonation processes. Both acids and bases catalyze this exchange and even when at its slowest(at pH 7), the average time for the atoms in an H2O molecule to stay together is only about a millisecond. As this brief period is, however, much longer than the timescales encountered during investigations into water’s hydrogen bonding or hydration properties, water is usually treated as a permanent structure. But when water exist in its crystalline form, hydrogen atoms become more stable.

The presence of ethyl alcohol in water is considered as a factor reducing the rate of protonation/deprotonation processes, thereby enhancing the stability of hydration shells. Importance of using water-ethanol mixture for homeopathic potentization is self-explained here.

It has been already stated that hydrogen bond strength can also be affected by electromagnetic and magnetic effects.

Any factors, such as polarization, that reduces the hydrogen bond length, is expected to increase its covalency. There is still some dispute over the size of this co-valency, however any co-valency will increase the network stability relative to purely electrostatic effects. As hydrogen bond strength depends almost linearly on its length (shorter length giving stronger hydrogen bonding), it also depends almost linearly (outside extreme values) on the temperature and pressure .

It has to be verified whether the violent succussion and rotatory motion done during potentization procedure any how plays a role in polarization of molecules, thereby reducing the hydrogen bond lengths, and increasing the stability of hydration shells formed.

Hydrogen bonded chains (that is, O-H····O-H····O) are cooperative; the breakage of the first bond is the hardest, then the next one is weakened, and so on (see the cyclic water pentamer). Thus unzipping may occur with complex macromolecules held together by hydrogen bonding, for example, nucleic acids. Such co-operativity is a fundamental property of liquid water where hydrogen bonds are up to 250% stronger than the single hydrogen bond in the dimer . A strong base at the end of a chain may strengthen the bonding further.

At this stage we have to understand a few facts about Ethyl Alcohol(CH3- CH2 – OH ). The molecules of alcohol also have the dipole structure as water molecules. It is possible for them to establish mutual connection through hydrogen bonding. The molecular weight of alcohol molecule is 46. The molecular weight of water(H2O) is 18. That means that the number of water molecules contained in 18 gram of water and the number of alcohol molecules contained in 46 gram of ethyl alcohol are equal. When alcohol and water are thoroughly mixed alcohol molecules forms a network with water molecules through hydrogen bonds, The mobility of water molecules is restricted by the bonds established with alcohol molecules. Hence, hydration shells formed in alcohol–water mixture are comparatively more stable. The count of alcohol molecules and the count of water molecules contained in their mixture in 73:27 ratio will be equal. (73% w/w. alcohol and 27% w/w water) This mixture is known as (40 power spirit).

Medium used for homoeopathic potentization is a mixture containing 87% w/w of alcohol and 13% w/w of water. In this ratio, the number of alcohol molecules will be about more than that of of water molecules. Rectified spirit is an azeotrope containing 95% alcohol and 5%water. Such a ratio will be very suitable for the production of stable hydration shells. More over, the presence of ethyl alcohol in water is considered as a factor reducing the rate of protonation/deprotonation processes, thereby enhancing the stability of hydration shells. This may further explain the importance of water-ethyl alcohol mixture being used as the medium of homoeopathic potentization.

We know that water is a good solvent. Let us see what happens when foreign molecules are made to dissolve in water. If a foreign molecule, ion, or colloidal particle happens to enter the matrix of 3-dimensional dynamic network of water molecules, they are entrapped inside this network. Water molecules arrange themselves around the intruder or ‘guest’ in a peculiar way by the formation hydrogen bonds. These formations of water molecules around the ‘guest’ molecules are known as hydration shells.

These hydration shells exist in a dynamic state, and are more or less unstable. The foreign molecules dissolved in water exist in a state of being entrapped inside these hydration shells as ‘guests’. This phenomenon can be seen both in ionic solutions and colloidal solutions. Obviously, hydration shells assume an internal spacial arrangement exactly fitting to the 3-dimensional spacial configuration of the foreign molecule entrapped in them.

If we could devise some technique to remove the entrapped ‘guest’ molecules from these hydration shells, without disturbing the hydrogen bonds between the constituent water molecules, these hydration shells can still retain the molecular memory of the molecular configurations of the removed ‘guest’ molecules. This rarely studied phenomenon is known as ‘molecular memory of water’.

Actual mechanism and forces underlying this phenomenon has to be investigated minutely by physical scientists. Minute changes occurring in the electron clouds of atoms of water molecules during the formation of hydration shells may be one factor responsible for this phenomenon. It has been well proven that these hydration shells later show a peculiar capability to differentially recognize the original ‘guest’ molecules which were responsible for their formation. This may be due to the existence of some imprinted memory of those ‘guest’ molecules retained in the hydration shells.

This imprinting of memory may be compared to formation of finger prints. As in the case of finger prints, configuration of these molecular imprints also will be a complementary negative of ‘guest’ molecules. These empty hydration shells, or supra-molecular formations of water subjected to molecular imprinting, may be called ‘hydrosomes’, which means, minute ‘nano-cavities of water’. Homeopathic process of potentization is essentially a crude method of preparing hydrosomes, prepared by using various drug molecules as ‘guests’.

It should be specifically noted that the medium used for homeopathic potentisation is not pure water, but it is mixed with ethyl alcohol in a particular ratio. It may be inferred that the presence of comparatively heavy ethyl alcohol molecules in this mixture may be contributing to stabilization of ‘hydrosomes’, preventing their easy dissociation. The convergent forces of rotational movements to which the mixture is subjected as part of potentization, may also be a contributing factor in stabilizing the empty hydration shells by polarization and subsequent reduction of hydrogen bond lengths..

This peculiar configuration of hydrosomes are destroyed only when their energy level of water molecules are disturbed by the effect of heat, electricity, magnetism and other electro magnetic radiations. As stated earlier the hydration shells formed in pure water are comparatively unstable. Here lies the importance of the fact that homeopathic potencies are made using alcohol- water mixture.

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Molecular Imprinting is not my original idea or invention. My contribution in this concept is actually very limited, by way of trying to explain homeopathic potentization as a bio-friendly version of already existing Molecular Imprinting In Polymers

The technique of molecular imprinting in polymers allows for the preparation of synthetic polymers with specific binding sites for a target molecule. This can be achieved if the target is present during the polymerization process,thus acting as a molecular template. Monomers carrying certain functional groups are arranged around the template through either non-covalent or covalent interactions. Following polymerization with a high degree of cross-linking, the functional groups become fixed in defined positions by the polymer network. Subsequent removal of the template by solvent extraction or chemical cleavage leaves cavities that are complementary to the template in terms of size, shape and arrangement of the functional groups. These highly specific receptor sites are capable of rebinding the target molecule with high specificity, sometimes comparable to that of antibodies. Molecular imprinted polymers have therefore been named “antibody mimics”. It has been shown that they can be substituted for biological receptors in certain formats of immunoassays and biosensors. They are characterized by high stability.

Target molecules for which we want to prepare ‘artificial binding sites’ or ‘molecular imprints’, which are normally large complex protein molecules, are identified and selected as ‘template molecules. These template molecules are added to a mixture of ‘monomers’ and ‘activators’ and thoroughly mixed. This mixture is allowed to undergo a process of ‘self assembling’ and ‘polymerization’, which is actually a ‘guest-host’ molecular complex, in which the template molecules are trapped in a hardened polymer matrix which act as ‘host’. This ‘host-guest’ complex is pulverized, and subjected to a process of ‘solvent extraction’, by which soluble template molecules are remove from insoluble polymer matrix. The resultant preparation consists of polymer matrix carrying empty spaces or ‘cavities’ where the template molecules were originally trapped. These cavities are called ‘molecular imprints’, which actually mimic the spacial configuration of template molecules. Due to this complementary configuration, these ‘molecular imprints’ exhibit a special affinity towards original template molecules, and act as ‘artificial binding sites’ for them.

Since ‘molecular imprinted polymers’ prepared by this process are synthetic polymers, they cannot be used as drugs. Homeopathy uses water-ethyl alcohol mixture as ‘host’ in place of polymers, and drug molecules as ‘templates’ or ‘guests’ for preparing molecular imprints that could be used as drugs. Since molecular imprints prepared by this process consist of only water and ethyl alcohol molecules, they could be safely used as therapeutic agents.

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The word ‘drug potency’ and ‘drug potentization’ is associated with the concept of ‘dynamic drug energy’. As per this view, every drug substance has its ‘inherent qualities’, which exist as specific ‘energy’ of dynamic in form, and act up on the ‘vital force’ of organism by a dynamic way. This dynamic drug energy can exist free from ‘material drug, substance and transferred into rectified spirit or sugar of milk through a process called ‘potentization’. By this process, the ‘dynamic drug energy’ gettin freed from the drug substance moves to the potentizing medium and ‘energizes’ it. By the process of serial dilution and succussion, this dynamic energy could be ‘raised’ to new energy levels, and as such, it is believed that ‘higher’ dilutions are more ‘potentized’ and more powerful. This ‘dynamic drug energy’ carried by the ‘potentized drugs’ act upon the vital force and induces a ‘healing process’.

According to the MIT concept I propose, I am explaining the process involved in potentization in terms of ‘molecular imprinting’. It is not the ‘dynamic drug energy’ that is transferred into the medium during so-called process of potentization, but the three dimensional configuration of constituent drug molecules getting imprinted into the supra-molecular matrix of potentizing medium in the form of nanocavities, through a process of forming hydration shells. These nanocavities act as artificial binding sites or artificial ‘key holes’ for pathogenic molecules having morphological similarity to imprinted molecules. This concept scientifically explains the molecular dynamics of homeopathic therapeutics involved in ‘similia similibus curentur’ in a way fitting to the concepts of modern biochemistry, molecular pathology and therapeutics.

Obviously, the term ‘potentization’ reflects the vitalistic philosophy behind it. It would be ideal to use the term ‘molecular imprinting’ to explain the exact process in scientific terms.

Once you understand and accept ‘molecular imprinting’ as the real process involved in potentization, and perceive ‘potentized’ drugs in terms of constituent molecular imprints, all confusions regarding selection of potencies will be scientifically resolved.

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A lot of confusions, controversies and phobias exist regarding the selection of potencies to be administered, after selecting the similimum. Everything is controversial in this area of applied homeopathy. Each homeopath has his own ways, and believes that only he is right.Young homeopaths get confused due to totally contradicting advice they get from their different teachers.

Once similimum is selected for a case through a process of exhaustive case taking, repertorization and material medica study, the next issue that bothers a young homeopath the most is the selection of potency, dosage and repetitions.

There are many ‘laws, principles, theories and guidelines’, given by different masters, most of them contradicting and conflicting with one another, which makes everything complex for a new comer.

Through hard experience, most homeopaths finally settle into a stage where they make their own ‘private’ ‘laws’ regarding potency, dose and repetition, which they will never expose to the homeopathic community, for fear of being ridiculed as deviation from principles. Everybody wants to appear to be belonging to that respectable class of ‘classical homeopaths’, pretending to be strictly following all the ‘immutable’ ‘cardinal principles’ of ‘pure’ homeopathy.

Please remember, all these ‘laws’ are made and practiced without even knowing what are the active principles of medicines we are using. Everything is pure speculation. Please remember, nobody actually knows what exactly happens during potentization. Nobody knows what are exactly the active principles of potentized drugs. Nobody exactly knows the molecular mechanism by which potentized drugs interacts with biological organism and creates a therapeutic effect. Nobody knows how low potencies are different from high potencies. Everything is based on speculations. Dynamism, vibrational theory, Vitalism- everything explained as phenomena happening ‘beyond science’.

Through MIT, I am trying to resolve the issue of potencies in the light of scientifically viable working hypothesis regarding homeopathic therapeutics and potentization.

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Homeopathy is not witchcraft. Whether you are aware of it or not, homeopathic drugs can act upon the body only according to the kinetics of biomolecular interactions already known to modern science. If anybody claim he can cure diseases arising from chromosome abnormalities, that only means he is pathetically ignorant about basics of genetics.

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We often hear the cliche: “Homeopathy never fails- it is homeopaths that fail”.

I disagree. There are many instances where homeopathy itself fails. Homeopathy has a particular therapeutic range. If applied in cases that are beyond that range, homeopathy will definitely fail. One example is genetic disorders or diseases arising from chromosome abnormalities. Homeopathy cannot cure them.

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I am 100% convinced that homeopathy cannot move further forward and advance into a scientific medical system without understanding and accepting the explanations and concepts proposed by MIT. Earlier the homeopaths realize this truth, the better it will be for homeopathy.

What is MIT?

MIT or Molecular Imprints Therapeutics refers to a scientific hypothesis that proposes a rational model for biological mechanism of homeopathic therapeutics.

According to MIT hypothesis, potentization involves a process of ‘molecular imprinting’, where in the conformational details of individual drug molecules are ‘imprinted’ or engraved as hydrogen-bonded three dimensional nano-cavities into a supra-molecular matrix of water and ethyl alcohol, through a process of molecular level ‘host-guest’ interactions. These ‘molecular imprints’ or ‘hydrosomes’ are the active principles of post-avogadro dilutions used as homeopathic drugs.

Due to ‘conformational affinity’, molecular imprints can act as ‘artificial key holes’ or ‘ligand binds’ for the specific drug molecules used for imprinting, and for all pathogenic molecules having functional groups ‘similar’ to those drug molecules. When used as therapeutic agents, molecular imprints selectively bind to the pathogenic molecules having conformational affinity and deactivate them, thereby relieving the biological molecules from the inhibitions or blocks caused by pathogenic molecules. According to MIT hypothesis, this is the biological mechanism of high dilution therapeutics involved in homeopathic cure.

According to MIT hypothesis, ‘Similia Similibus Curentur’ means, diseases expressed through a particular group of symptoms could be cured by ‘molecular imprints’ forms of drug substances, which in ‘molecular’ or crude forms could produce ‘similar’ groups of symptoms in healthy individuals. ‘Similarity’ of drug symptoms and diseaes indicates ‘similarity’ of pathological molecular inhibitions caused by drug molecules and pathogenic molecules, which in turn indicates conformational ‘similarity’ of functional groups of drug molecules and pathogenic molecules. Since molecular imprints of ‘similar’ molecules can bind to ‘similar’ ligand molecules by conformational affinity, they can act as therapeutic agents when applied as indicated by ‘similarity of symptoms’.

No body in the whole history could so far propose a hypothesis about homeopathy as scientific, rational and perfect as MIT, explaining the molecular process involed in potentization, and the biological mechanism involved in ‘similia similibus curentur’, in a way fitting well to modern scientific knowledge system.

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If you do not agree with my views, kindly tell me on what specific points you disagree with me. I can review myself once again, make my points more clear, and you can explain your disagreements further. We can differ and discuss as gentlemen. Kindly do not abuse me, humiliate me, or use words that wound my self esteem.

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Before MIT was introduced, it is an undeniable fact that nobody knew how homeopathy works.

To mask this ignorance, ‘intellectuals’ among homeopaths create fanciful theories. All these theories about homeopathy are utter nonsense- pure absurdity.

Until homeopaths stop talking nonsense ‘ultra-scientific’ theories about homeopathy, we cannot expect a fair deal from scientific community. At least homeopaths should show the humility to say: “we know homeopathy works- that is our daily experience; but we do not know how it actually works; we need the help of scientific community to resolve this riddle”.

Before MIT was introduced, nobody could so far even propose a scientifically viable hypothesis about how homeopathy works, a hypothesis that could be presented as a rightful candidate for verification using scientific methods. Actually, our ‘pseudo-scientific’ homeopathic theoreticians are doing the greatest harm to homeopathy than anti-homeopathic skeptics.

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Dear skeptic, by saying ‘homeopathy is fake’, and ‘it is based on belief’, what do you actually mean? Do you mean homeopathy is based on ‘beliefs of PRACTITIONER’, or it is working on ‘beliefs of PATIENTS’?

Do you remember, when you declare homeopathy is a ‘fake discipline’, you are saying that the Act passed by Indian parliament is ‘fake’, Central council of homeopathy is ‘fake’ and those 186 homeopathic colleges in India are ‘fake’? You mean 285000 registered homeopaths, 6000 government dispensaries and hospitals are doing ‘fake’ medical practice that may ‘endanger’ human lives? According to you, BHMS and MD degrees awarded by Indian universities are all about ‘fake’ disciplines? Do you mean those millions of people thronging daily in homeopathic clinics and getting relief for their ailments are idiots attracted to ‘fake practitioners’ due to ‘belief’ only?

Hope you would know India is home to around 285,000 registered homeopaths, 186 prestigious homeopathic colleges imparting UG and PG courses, over 6000 government homeopathic dispensaries and about 250 government hospitals. More than 15000 student come out of these colleges every year with BHMS degree, after completing a rigorous five and half year course of study and internship, for which they got admission by scoring top rankings in entrance examinations after 12 years of schooling in science streams. Curriculum of BHMS course constitutes Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Practice of Medicine and all subjects of modern health care knowledge. There is a Central Council of Homeopathy under Government of India, constituted as per a n Central Act passed by Indian parliament, overseeing everything in the field of homeopathic education, research and practice in India.

Homeopathy is a very important wing of public health care system in in India. Homeopathic wings are working in many allopathic hospitals and dispensaries, both government and private. Homeopathic doctors provide treatment to millions of patients for different day to day illnesses in the public health care system. Even during sporadic and epidemic conditions, people tend to use homeopathic drugs for prevention. Recently, the Indian Government successfully ran a national health campaign ‘Homeopathy for a Healthy Mother & a Happy Child’, which was based exclusively on homeopathy. Also, private homeopathic practitioners are contributing a great deal in public health care through their private or charitable clinics.

Besides clinical research, there are fundamental, drug standardization, drug proving and clinical verification research going on, both at government and private levels. For example, the Central Council for Research in Homeopathy is conducting a lot of such research, either independently or in collaboration with other research institutes or individual researchers, under an extra-mural research scheme at the Dept of AYUSH, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare of the Indian Government. Other than that, almost all homeopathic organizations and individuals are doing their bit toward research for the further validation of homeopathy in today’s times of evidence-based medicine. The results have been encouraging, to say the least. In fact, over the years,India has learnt better ways of conducting research from their international counterparts and the recent research has been carried out as per standardized, internationally recognized methods and are therefore more acceptable.

A few exemplary results from clinical studies include work on tubercular lymphadenitis, japanese encephalitis, etc. In addition, some administrative studies have been undertaken, like the ‘assessment of the cost effectiveness of homeopathic clinic in the cafeteria approach’ and ‘public-private partnerships in the provision of homeopathic services in the city of Delhi, where it was tried to analyze both the strengths and weaknesses of medical pluralism in India and have worked out some solutions for implementing medical pluralism more effectively in all parts of India.

These facts and figures are a clear reflection of the belief of the people of India in the homeopathic system of medicine, which, in turn, is a result of the effectiveness of homeopathy in treating a wide range of illnesses, which has convinced the Indian masses over a period of time.

Kindly think twice before declaring “homeopathy is fake”.

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Life is like a relay race. Handing over the baton to the next runner smoothly and IN TIME is very important for winning the race. Most of us run our part very fast, but fail or even hesitate to hand over the baton. Next runner does not get a good start, and the race ultimately fails.

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Being adorned as an ‘expert’ in a particular subject does not mean he knows everything about that subject. Most of our very reputed and respected ‘experts’ and ‘masters’ of homeopathy are actually very poor in the knowledge of real science of homeopathy. If you observe them very close, you will have to wonder how much foolish notions those ‘experts’ have about the various phenomena and principles working behind this therapeutic method!

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No body in the whole history could so far propose a hypothesis about homeopathy as scientific, rational and perfect as MIT, explaining the molecular process involed in potentization, and the biological mechanism involved in ‘similia similibus curentur’, in a way fitting well to modern scientific knowledge system.

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According to MIT hypothesis, ‘Similia Similibus Curentur’ means, diseases expressed through a particular group of symptoms could be cured by ‘molecular imprints’ forms of drug substances, which in ‘molecular’ or crude forms could produce ‘similar’ groups of symptoms in healthy individuals. ‘Similarity’ of drug symptoms and disease symptoms indicates ‘similarity’ of pathological molecular inhibitions caused by drug molecules and pathogenic molecules, which in turn indicates conformational ‘similarity’ of functional groups of drug molecules and pathogenic molecules. Since molecular imprints of ‘similar’ molecules can bind to ‘similar’ ligand molecules by conformational affinity, they can act as therapeutic agents when applied as indicated by ‘similarity of symptoms’.

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Due to ‘conformational affinity’, molecular imprints can act as ‘artificial key holes’ or ‘ligand binds’ for the specific drug molecules used for imprinting, and for all pathogenic molecules having functional groups ‘similar’ to those drug molecules. When used as therapeutic agents, molecular imprints selectively bind to the pathogenic molecules having conformational affinity and deactivate them, thereby relieving the biological molecules from the inhibitions or blocks caused by pathogenic molecules. According to MIT hypothesis, this is the biological mechanism of high dilution therapeutics involved in homeopathic cure.

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According to MIT hypothesis, potentization involves a process of ‘molecular imprinting’, where in the conformational details of individual drug molecules are ‘imprinted’ or engraved as hydrogen-bonded three dimensional nano-cavities into a supra-molecular matrix of water and ethyl alcohol, through a process of molecular level ‘host-guest’ interactions. These ‘molecular imprints’ or ‘hydrosomes’ are the active principles of post-avogadro dilutions used as homeopathic drugs.

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Organon : Aphorism 16 : Sixth Edition:

“Our vital force, as a spirit-like dynamis, cannot be attacked and affected by injurious influences on the healthy organism caused by the external inimical forces that disturb the harmonious play of life, otherwise than in a spirit-like (dynamic) way, and in like manner, all such morbid derangements (diseases) cannot be removed from it by the physician in any other way than by the spirit-like (dynamic1, virtual) alterative powers of the serviceable medicines acting upon our spirit-like vital force, which perceives them through the medium of the sentient faculty of the nerves everywhere present in the organism, so that it is only by their dynamic action on the vital force that remedies are able to re-establish and do actually re-establish health and vital harmony, after the changes in the health of the patient cognizable by our senses (the totality of the symptoms) have revealed the disease to the carefully observing and investigating physician as fully as was requisite in order to enable him to cure it.

Foot notes:- Most severe disease may be produced by sufficient disturbance of the vital force through the imagination and also cured by the same means.”

My Comments:

Hahnemann says: “alterative powers of the serviceable medicines acting upon our spirit-like vital force, which perceives them through the medium of the sentient faculty of the nerves everywhere present in the organism”. According to this view, homeopathic potentized drugs act through “sentient nerves”. But research works proved otherwise. Researchers have proved that potentized drugs act even up on in vitro biological samples which do not contain any ‘sentient nerves’ or nerve cells. There are enough scientific evidences now to prove that potentized drugs act up on biological molecules- not merely ‘sentient nerves’.

Hahnemann’s statement “disease may be produced by sufficient disturbance of the vital force through the imagination and also cured by the same means” actually explains the phenomena of so-called psychosomatic diseases, which are well explained by biochemistry, without any involvement of vital force theory. According to scientific view, “imaginations’ and “emotoions” are not “non-material” What we call ‘emotions’ and ‘sensations’ are actually very complex biochemical processes happening in our brain. There is nothing ‘immaterial’ in ‘emotions’ and other mental processes. During those biochemical processes, different types of chemical molecules are synthesized and utilized by the central nervous system, such as hormones, cytokines, neuro-mediators and neurotransmitters etc. What we call ‘bad effects’ of emotions are actually the delayed, off-target or rebound chemical actions of these biochemical molecules. Biochemistry can explain such phenomena without any involvement of any ‘immaterial’ or ‘dynamic’ vital force.

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Organon : Aphorism 15 : Sixth Edition:

“The affection of the morbidly deranged, spirit-like dynamis (vital force) that animates our body in the invisible interior, and the totality of the outwardly cognizable symptoms produced by it in the organism and representing the existing malady, constitute a whole; they are one and the same. The organism is indeed the material instrument of the life, but it is not conceivable without the animation imparted to it by the instinctively perceiving and regulating dynamis, just as the vital force is not conceivable without the organism, consequently the two together constitute a unity, although in thought our mind separates this unity into two distinct conceptions for the sake of easy comprehension.”

My comments:

I would suggest to modify this aphorism as follows: “”The affection of the morbidly deranged molecular level vital processes, and the totality of the outwardly cognizable symptoms produced by it in the organism and representing the existing malady, constitute a whole; they are one and the same. The molecular processes in the organism are indeed the material basis of the phenomenon life.

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Organon : Aphorism 14 : Sixth Edition:

“There is, in the interior of man, nothing morbid that is curable and no invisible morbid alteration that is curable which does not make itself known to the accurately observing physicians by means of morbid signs and symptoms – an arrangement in perfect conformity with the infinite goodness of the all-wise Preserver of human life.”

My comments:

“”There is, in the interior of man, nothing morbid that is curable and no invisible morbid alteration that is curable which does not make itself known to the accurately observing physicians by means of morbid signs and symptoms”- It is a correct statement even valid from modern scientific point of view, even if we discard the vitalistic interpretations of Hahnemann.

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Organon : Aphorism 13:

“Therefore disease (that does not come within the province of manual surgery) considered, as it is by the allopathists, as a thing separate from the living whole, from the organism and its animating vital force, and hidden in the interior, be it ever so subtle a character, is an absurdity, that could only be imagined by minds of a materialistic stamp, and has for thousands of years given to the prevailing system of medicine all those pernicious impulses that have made it a truly mischievous (non-healing) art.”

My comments:

Hahnemann considers asking questions about the inner processes of disease is an “absurdity” “imagined by minds of a materialistic stamp”, and it is this “materialistic mind” that made “the prevailing system of medicine” “a truly mischievous (non-healing) art.”

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Organon : Aphorism 12 : Sixth Edition:

“It is the morbidly affected vital energy alone that produces disease, so that the morbid phenomena perceptible to our senses express at the same time all the internal change, that is to say, the whole morbid derangement of the internal dynamis; in a word, they reveal the whole disease; consequently, also, the disappearance under treatment of all the morbid phenomena and of all the morbid alterations that differ from the healthy vital operations, certainly affects and necessarily implies the restoration of the integrity of the vital force and, therefore, the recovered health of the whole organism.

Foot notes:- How the vital force causes the organism to display morbid phenomena, that is, how it produces disease, it would be of no practical utility to the physician to know, and will forever remain concealed from him; only what it is necessary for him to know of the disease and what is fully sufficient for enabling him to cure it, has the Lord of life revealed to his senses”

My Comments:

Regarding the question “how vital force causes disease”, Hahnemann declares “it would be of no practical utility to the physician to know, and will forever remain concealed”. Up on god, he says the physician should try to know only “what it is necessary for him to know of the disease and what is fully sufficient for enabling him to cure it”! Lazy and dogmatic homeopaths love to quote this statement frequently to cover up their inability to answer “how homeopathy works”. According to them, our master has eternally forbidden us from asking such questions!

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Organon : Aphorism 11 : Sixth Edition:

“When a person falls ill, it is only this spiritual, self acting (automatic) vital force, everywhere present in his organism, that is primarily deranged by the dynamic1 influence upon it of a morbific agent inimical to life; it is only the vital force, deranged to such an abnormal state, that can furnish the organism with its disagreeable sensations, and incline it to the irregular processes which we call disease; for, as a power invisible in itself, and only cognizable by its effects on the organism, its morbid derangement only makes itself known by the manifestation of disease in the sensations and functions of those parts of the organism exposed to the senses of the observer and physician, that is, by morbid symptoms, and in no other way can it make itself known.

Foot notes:- What is dynamic influence, – dynamic power? Our earth, by virtue of a hidden invisible energy, carries the moon around her in twenty-eight days and several hours, and the moon alternately, in definite fixed hours (deducting certain differences which occur with the full and new moon) raises our northern seas to flood tide and again correspondingly lowers them to ebb. Apparently this takes place not through material agencies, not through mechanical contrivances, as are used for products of human labor; and so we see numerous other events about us as results of the action of one substance on another substance without being able to recognize a sensible connection between cause and effect. Only the cultured, practised in comparison and deduction, can form for himself a kind of supra-sensual idea sufficient to keep all that is material or mechanical in his thoughts from such concepts. He calls such effects dynamic, virtual, that is, such as result from absolute, specific, pure energy and action of the one substance upon the other substance.

For instance, the dynamic effect of the sick-making influences upon healthy man, as well as the dynamic energy of the medicines upon the principle of life in the restoration of health is nothing else than infection and so not in any way material, not in any way mechanical. Just as the energy of a magnet attracting a piece of iron or steel is not material, not mechanical. One sees that the piece of iron is attracted by one pole of the magnet, but how it is done is not seen. This invisible energy of the magnet does not require mechanical (material) auxiliary means,
hook or lever, to attract the iron. The magnet draws to itself and this acts upon the piece of iron or upon a steel needle by means of a purely immaterial invisible, conceptual, inherent energy, that is, dynamically, and communicates to the steel needle the magnetic energy equally invisibly (dynamically). The steel needle becomes itself magnetic, even at a distance when the magnet does not touch it, and magnetises other steel needles with the same magnetic property (dynamically) with which it had been endowered previously by the magnetic rod, just as a child with small-pox or measles communicates to a near, untouched healthy child in an invisible manner (dynamically) the small-pox or measles, that is, infects it at a distance without anything material from the infective child going or capable of going to the one to be infected. A purely specific conceptual influence communicated to the near child small-pox or measles in the same way as the magnet communicated to the near needle the magnetic property.

In a similar way, the effect of medicines upon living man is to be judged. Substances, which are used as medicines, are medicines only in so far as they possess each its own specific energy to alter the well-being of man through dynamic, conceptual influence, by means of the living sensory fibre, upon the conceptual controlling principle of life. The medicinal property of those material substances which we call medicines proper, relates only to their energy to call out alterations in the well-being of animal life. Only upon this conceptual principle of life, depends their medicinal health-altering, conceptual (dynamic) influence. Just as the nearness of a magnetic pole can communicate only magnetic energy to the steel (namely, by a kind of infection) but cannot commu nicate other properties (for instance, more hardness or ductility, etc.). And thus every special medicinal substance alters through a kind of infection, that well-being of man in a peculiar manner exclusively its own and not in a manner peculiar to another medicine, as certainly as the nearness of the child ill with small-pox will communicate to a healthy child only small-pox and not measles.

These medicines act upon our well-being wholly without communication of material parts of the medicinal substances, thus dynamically, as if through infection. Far more healing energy is expressed in a case in point by the smallest dose of the best dynamized medicines, in which there can be, according to calculation, only so little of material substance that its minuteness cannot be thought and conceived by the best arithmetical mind, than by large doses of the same medicine in substance.

That smallest dose can therefore contain almost entirely only the pure, freely-developed, conceptual medicinal energy, and bring about only dynamically such great effects as can never be reached by the crude medicinal substances itself taken in large doses.

It is not in the corporal atoms of these highly dynamized medicines, nor their physical or mathematical surfaces (with which the higher energies of the dynamized medicines are being interpreted but vainly as still sufficiently material) that the medicinal energy is found. More likely, there lies invisible in the moistened globule or in its solution, an unveiled, liberated, specific, medicinal force contained in the medicinal substance which acts dynamically by contact with the living animal fibre upon the whole organism (without communicating to it anything material however highly attenuated) and acts more strongly the more free and more immaterial the energy has become through the dynamization.

Is it then so utterly impossible for our age celebrated for its wealth in clear thinkers to think of dynamic energy as something non-corporeal, since we see daily phenomena which cannot be explained in any other manner?

If one looks upon something nauseous and becomes inclined to vomit, did a material emetic come into his stomach which compels him to this anti-peristaltic movement? Was it not solely the dynamic effect of the nauseating aspect upon his imagination? And if one raises his arm, does it occur through a material visible instrument? a lever? Is it not solely the conceptual dynamic energy of his will which raises it?”

My Comments:

Listen to this statement, which amounts to a confession by Hahnemann: “think of dynamic energy as something non-corporeal, since we see daily phenomena which cannot be explained in any other manner”. That clearly explains how Hahnemann happened to “think of dynamic energy as something non-corporeal” It was only “since we see daily phenomena which cannot be explained in any other manner”! He was compelled to explain homeopathy using concepts of “dynamic energy” and “vital force”, only because he could not explain the phenomena of cure he observed, using “any other manner”! This statement constitutes a great historical truth.

In my opinion, foot note of aphorism 11 is a severe self-insult Hahnemann inflicted upon his own credibility, as it contains a lot of most irrational and unscientific statements that reflects the limitations of scientific knowledge available to him.

Please read carefully the following statements I quoted from this most unscientific and most unwanted foot-note:

“Our earth, by virtue of a hidden invisible energy, carries the moon around her”
“moon raises our northern seas to flood tide and again correspondingly lowers them to ebb by a hidden invisible energy”

“we see numerous other events about us as results of the action of one substance on another substance without being able to recognize a sensible connection between cause and effect.”

“calls such effects dynamic, virtual, that is, such as result from absolute, specific, pure energy and action of the one substance upon the other substance.”

“For instance, the dynamic effect of the sick-making influences upon healthy man, as well as the dynamic energy of the medicines upon the principle of life in the restoration of health is nothing else than infection and so not in any way material, not in any way mechanical. “

“the energy of a magnet attracting a piece of iron or steel is not material, not mechanical.”

“the piece of iron is attracted by one pole of the magnet, but how it is done is not seen.”

“The magnet draws to itself and this acts upon the piece of iron or upon a steel needle by means of a purely immaterial invisible, conceptual, inherent energy, that is, dynamically, and communicates to the steel needle the magnetic energy equally invisibly (dynamically).”

“a child with small-pox or measles communicates to a near, untouched healthy child in an invisible manner (dynamically) the small-pox or measles, that is, infects it at a distance without anything material from the infective child going or capable of going to the one to be infected. A purely specific conceptual influence communicated to the near child small-pox or measles in the same way as the magnet communicated to the near needle the magnetic property.”

“Substances, which are used as medicines, are medicines only in so far as they possess each its own specific energy to alter the well-being of man through dynamic, conceptual influence, by means of the living sensory fibre, upon the conceptual controlling principle of life “

“The medicinal property of those material substances which we call medicines proper, relates only to their energy to call out alterations in the well-being of animal life.”

“Only upon this conceptual principle of life, depends their medicinal health-altering, conceptual (dynamic) influence, just as the nearness of a magnetic pole can communicate only magnetic energy to the steel, namely, by a kind of infection.”

“every special medicinal substance alters through a kind of infection, that well-being of man in a peculiar manner exclusively its own and not in a manner peculiar to another medicine, as certainly as the nearness of the child ill with small-pox will communicate to a healthy child only small-pox and not measles. “

“These medicines act upon our well-being wholly without communication of material parts of the medicinal substances, thus dynamically, as if through infection”

“That smallest dose can therefore contain almost entirely only the pure, freely-developed, conceptual medicinal energy, and bring about only dynamically such great effects as can never be reached by the crude medicinal substances itself taken in large doses”

“It is not in the corporal atoms of these highly dynamized medicines, nor their physical or mathematical surfaces that the medicinal energy is found. “

“there lies invisible in the moistened globule or in its solution, an unveiled, liberated, specific, medicinal force contained in the medicinal substance which acts dynamically by contact with the living animal fibre upon the whole organism (without communicating to it anything material however highly attenuated) and acts more strongly the more free and more immaterial the energy has become through the dynamization.”

“If one looks upon something nauseous and becomes inclined to vomit, did a material emetic come into his stomach which compels him to this anti-peristaltic movement? Was it not solely the dynamic effect of the nauseating aspect upon his imagination?”

“And if one raises his arm, does it occur through a material visible instrument? a lever? Is it not solely the conceptual dynamic energy of his will which raises it?”

IF YOU READ ALL THESE SENTENCES I QUOTED FROM ABOVE FOOT NOTE, YOU WILL REALIZE WHY I CONSIDER THIS FOOT NOTE AS A SELF-INFLICTED INSULT UP ON CREDENTIALS OF OUR MASTER.

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Organon : Aphorism 10 : Sixth Edition:

“The material organism, without the vital force, is capable of no sensation, no function, no self-preservation1, it derives all sensation and performs all the functions of life solely by means of the immaterial being (the vital principle) which animates the material organism in health and in disease.

Foot notes:- It is dead, and only subject to the power of the external physical world; it decays, and is again resolved into its chemical constituents.”

My comments:

The most relevant question is, can this “immaterial” vital force ‘animate’ a metal body, a stone or a piece of wood and convert them into LIVING organisms, and give them ‘sensations’? Why vital force is capable of “animating” ONLY “material bodies” having a peculiar molecular structure and organization?

No ‘vital force’ can ‘animate’ a dead organism and bring it back to life, once the biochemical processes essential for normal vital functions are stopped and biological molecules are disorganized. All the functions you consider as vital force are seen only in highly organized organism constituted by complex biological molecules. It is the molecular level structure and organization of biological molecules and their interactions that impart properties of life to a ‘material body’. Vital force cannot animate a ‘material object’ in the absence of biological chemical molecules.

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READ Organon : Aphorism 9:

“In the healthy condition of man, the spiritual vital force (autocracy), the dynamis that animates the material body (organism), rules with unbounded sway, and retains all the parts of the organism in admirable, harmonious, vital operation, as regards both sensations and functions, so that our indwelling, reason-gifted mind can freely employ this living, healthy instrument for the higher purpose of our existence.”

My comments:

According to hahnemann, vital force is a ‘dynamis’ that ‘animates’ and ‘rules’ the ‘material body’. It is this vital force that “retains all the parts of the organism in admirable, harmonious, vital operation, as regards both sensations and functions”. As per this view, “material body” is only an “instrument” of “indwelling, reason-gifted mind”.

Hahnemann seems to think that the role of “material body” is limited to obeying the “rule” of vital force and act as an “instrument” of mind. He do not consider the molecular level structure, organization and chemical properties of the complex biological molecules constituting the ‘material body’ to play a role in the evolution of the phenomena he call ‘vital force’. He failed to understand that a ‘vital force’ cannot ‘animate’ a NON-LIVING ‘material body’ irrespective of its molecular level structure, organization and chemical properties? Actually, it is the STRUCTURE, ORGANIZATION and CHEMICAL PROPERTIES of complex biological molecules in the organism that initiate the MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS of ‘vital processes’ hahnemann call “vital force”. It is obvious that VITAL FORCE theory perceives biological processes upside down! At least, hahnemann should have noticed that this “all powerful” VITAL FORCE cannot “animate” MATERIAL BODIES if they have no a molecular level structure appropriate for the complex biological interactions constituting the vital processes.

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In Aphorisms 9 to 16 hahnemann explains his VITAL FORCE THEORY, which is actually a reassertion of unscientific philosophy of DYNAMISM that was a strong intellectual presence during his period. This part of ORGANON contributes much in making homeopathy incompatible with modern scientific knowledge, and it seems to be the greatest stumbling block in our efforts of making homeopathy a MEDICAL SCIENCE. This part of organon reflects the most primitive state of scientific knowledge that existed during hahnemann’s period. There is no doubt, if master had lived a few years later, he would have completely avoided this part from organon. In my opinion, these most unscientific aphorisms should be bracketed from new editions of organon being taught in our colleges, classifying it as only of historical interest. They should be replaced and updated with NEW scientific understanding of life, disease and cure, based on modern biochemistry and advanced life sciences.

For a scientific-minded person, there nothing to be seriously debated or argued in the ‘vital force theory’ in ORGANON, other than noting its historical premises and moved away into the archives.

Homeopathy can exist even without vital force theory. Actually, it becomes more rational and scientific by replacing the concept of ‘vital force’ with modern scientific understanding of ‘molecular level biochemical vital processes’.

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Dear friends, did anybody among you conduct any experiment to verify whether SYMPTOMS OF MALARIA could be produced in a healthy individual by administering CHINA either in CRUDE or POTENTIZED form? What was the outcome of your experiment?

I THINK THE FIRST RESEARCH WE SHOULD CONDUCT IN HOMEOPATHY IS TO VERIFY THIS POINT.

If we cannot experimentally produce symptoms of malaria by administering CHINA, how can we believe that the symptoms hahnemann happened to produce on himself by drinking a potion of CINCHONA bark were actually produced by that drug? How can we rule out the chance that the master was having a REAL malarial infection at that time, which he wrongly attributed to his taking of CINCHONA by mere coincidence?

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Is It Mandatory To Follow ‘Seven Cardinal Principles’ To Be A ‘True’ Homeopath, As We Believe?:

Many homeopaths talk about ‘seven cardinal principles of hahnemann’, and believe that without following these ‘cardinal’ principles one cannot be a ‘true’ homeopath.

Did hahnemann ever say there are ‘seven’ cardinal principles in homeopathy? Kindly verify for references from hahnemann’s original works. When we say homeopaths should ‘follow’ certain ‘cardinal principles of hahnemann’, we should inquire about the original reference where hahnemann said these are the cardinal principles.

Actually hahnemann did not make a ‘list’ of principles. He made some objective observations regarding the phenomenon of ‘cure’, and inferred that an objective ‘law’ is working under this phenomenon. He called it ‘similia similibus curentur’.

While experimenting with smaller and smaller doses of drug substances to avoid the bad effects of crude drugging prevalent in conventional medicine during that period, he noticed that even highly diluted drugs have medicinal effects, even though there existed least chance for medicinal substance to be present in them

Then he took up the task of explaining these two phenomena ( similia similibus curentur and high dilution effects) using the existing scientific knowledge available to him, thereby trying to build up a simple, safe and effective therapeutic system.

Since the scientific knowledge system was in its primitive stage of evolution during that time, it was difficult to explain these observed phenomena using existing tool-kit of science. In the absence of necessary scientific knowledge available for accomplishing this task, he was compelled to speculate using philosophical concepts such as ‘dynamism’ or ‘vitalism’. Actually, ORGANON represents his highly intellectual attempts to explain his fundamental observations regarding phenomena of cure.

In organon, he discussed many things, from ‘vital force theory’ to ‘mesmerism’. That does not mean everything he discussed are ‘cardinal’ principles of homeopathy. If you want to identify such ‘cardinal’ or ‘basic’ things of homeopathy, they are ‘similia similibus curentur’ and ‘potentization’. They are the ‘fundamental objective observations’ of natural phenomena. Everything else is philosophical speculations, which are bound to change as our scientific knowledge advances.

Actually, the ‘seven cardinal principles’ were the invention of some later interpreters- not of hahnemann. Somebody understood homeopathy that way- that is all. You can ‘filter’ any number of ‘cardinal’ principles from hahnemann’s works, according to your perspectives and understandings. If you want to see ‘vital force’ as cardinal principle of homeopathy, somebody else could say ‘mesmerism’ is also a cardinal principle of homeopathy. You can list ‘seven’ or ‘seventy’.

Somebody involved in the making of homeopathic curriculum for Indian universities happened to be influenced by this ‘seven cardinal principles’ and included it in the syllabus. Indian students were taught that to be a ‘true’ homeopath, they should ‘follow’ these ‘seven’ principles. If it was part of your syllabus, somebody should have asked the teachers for original references from hahnemann and verify whether hahnemann did say these ‘seven’ are ‘cardinal principles’ of homeopathy. That is the way inquisitive minds should work and learn more and more deep.

According to my analysis, the only ‘cardinal’ or ‘basic’ things in homeopathy are ‘two’ fundamental observations hahnemann made regarding the objective phenomena of ‘cure’. They are ‘similia similibus curentur’ and ‘potentization’. Everything else is totally unscientific speculations and theorizations made in an attempt to explain these ‘basic’ observations. There is nothing ‘cardinal’ in those observations. It is our duty to explain hahnemann’s ‘fundamental observations’ in terms of modern scientific knowledge system.

I would like to call ‘Similia Similibus Curentur’ and ‘Potentization’ as FUNDAMENTAL OBSERVATIONS OF HOMEOPATHY, rather than using the term ‘fundamental principles’. That would be more close to truth.

Hahnemann made two important observations regarding therapeutics 250 years ago:

1. Diseases with specific symptoms can be cured by drugs that can produce similar symptoms in healthy individuals. He called it ‘similia similibus curentur’.

2. When used according to ‘similia similibus curentur’, dug substances can act as powerful therapeutic agents even in high dilutions through a process of serial ‘dilution and succussion’. He called this process as ‘potentization’.

These TWO are the main OBSERVATIONS made by Hahnemann, which are known as fundamental principles of Homeopathy.

Hahnemann tried to explain these OBSERVATIONS in terms of scientific and philosophical knowledge available to him in that POINT OF TIME. Organon consists of these theoretical explanations and speculations. Since scientific knowledge was in its primitive stage at that time, Hahnemann’s explanations were bound to bear that limitations. ORGANON contains a lot of theorizations and speculations that do not agree with, or go against modern scientific understanding.

Equipped with modern scientific knowledge and its tools, we are now in a far better position than Samuel Hahnemann to explain the phenomena he observed 250 years ago. Now we can explain ‘similia similibus curentur’ and ‘potentization’ more scientifically, rationally and logically. With full respect the great genius of our master, we should be truthful and bold enough to discard those evidently unscientific theoretical speculations of ORGANON.

These two FUNDAMENTAL OBSERVATIONS were based on experiences, experiments and logical evaluations of OBJECTIVE PHENOMENA OF NATURE done by a great intellectual person. But the ‘principles’ he used to explain these objective phenomena were unscientific, obviously due to the limitations of scientific knowledge available to him at that time. We should accept his OBSERVATIONS, but judiciously discard or modify his unscientific PRINCIPLES.

Some people consider each and every word uttered by our ‘master’ as ‘fundamental principles’ of homeopathy. Some others would even include the words of other ‘stalwarts’ like Kent, Herring and the like also in the category of ‘fundamental’ principles.

All these ‘theories’ are only philosophical explanations, conjectures, interpretations, opinions and empirical conclusion based on personal experiences of ‘stalwarts’ and ‘masters’. They are not ‘fundamental principles’ of homeopathy.

If you understand the scientific meaning of ‘similia similibus curentur’ and ‘potentization’, and judiciously apply them for curing the patients, you are a ‘true homeopath’, even if you do not ‘follow’ the ‘seven cardinal principles’ invented by unscientific interpreters of hahnemann.

A ‘true’ homeopath is one who understands and applies homeopathy ‘scientifically- not one who learns homeopathy dogmatically and applies it blindly.

The main point I raise in this article is whether the concept of “seven cardinal principles” originally belongs to hahnemann or his later interpreters. Hahnemann said many things in his books, from ‘similia’ to ‘mesmerism’. Who decided only these ‘seven’ are ‘cardinal’ and others are not? What is the logic behind such a selection? Who did it?

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When you start perceiving potentized drugs in terms of diverse types of hydrosomes or ‘molecular imprints’ as the ‘active principles’ they contain, you will realize that all controversies over ‘monopharmacy/polypharmacy’ issue become totally irrelevant.

SIMILIMUM essentially means a drug substance that can provide the specific molecular imprints required to remove the particular molecular errors that caused the particular disease condition in the particular patient.

Since ‘multiple’ molecular errors exist in any patient in a particular point of time, expressed through ‘multiple’ groups of symptoms, he will inevitably need ‘multiple’ molecular imprints to remove them. If potentized form of a ‘single’ medicinal substance can provide all those ‘multiple’ molecular imprints, that ‘single’ drug substance will be enough. If we could not find a ‘single’ drug substance that contain ‘all’ the ‘multiple’ molecular imprints required by the patient as indicated by the ‘symptom groups’, we will have to include ‘multiple’ drug substances in our prescription. It is the constituent molecular imprints contained in our particular prescription that matter.

Important point is, we have to ensure that our prescription supplies ALL the diverse types of molecular imprints required to deactivate all the diverse types of pathogenic molecules working in the patient, as indicated by the diverse groups of subjective and objective symptoms expressed by him. If we could find a SINGLE drug preparation that could supply all the molecular imprints required by the patient I am dealing with, we can use that SINGLE drug preparation only. If we do not find such a single drug, we have to include as many number of drug preparations as required, in order to provide all the molecular imprints needed to remove all the molecular errors in the patient.

SINGLE/MULTIPLE drug controversy never bothers if we understand this scientific approach proposed by MIT, as we start thinking in terms of molecular imprints- not drug names. Actually, a drug become ‘single’, if it contains ‘single’ type of molecular imprints only. IF a drug contains more than one type of molecular imprints, it is a COMPOUND DRUG, even if it is known by a ‘single’ drug name, prepared from a ‘single’ SOURCE material, kept in a ‘single’ bottle, consumed as a ‘single’ unit for ‘drug proving’, or considered by ‘masters’ as ‘single’ drug.

When we consume NUX VOMICA Q, it is absorbed into the blood as various individual chemical molecules contained in it. It is these individual chemical molecules that interact with various biological molecules. Different molecules act up on different biological targets according to the molecular affinities of their functional groups. Biological molecules are inhibited, resulting in errors in the biochemical pathways mediated by those biological molecules. Such molecular level errors in biological processes cascades into a series of molecular errors, which are expressed through various groups of subjective and objective symptoms.

It is obvious that what we consider as the SYMPTOMS OF NUX VOMICA are actually the sum total of different SYMPTOM GROUPS, representing entirely different molecular errors produced in entirely different biological molecules, by the actions of entirely different chemical molecules contained in NUX VOMICA TINCTURE.

We have to remember, there is no such a thing called nux vomica molecule- only individual chemical molecules contained in nux vomica tincture. Each constituent molecule has its own specific chemical structure and properties. They act on different biological targets by this chemical properties.

Each individual chemical molecule contained in nux vomica acts as an individual drug. That means, NUX VOMICA is not a SINGLE drug, but a COMPOUND drug.

Homeopaths may find it difficult to accept this fact, as it contradicts with their beliefs as well as the lessons they are taught. But it is the scientific fact.

From scientific point of view of pharmaceutical chemistry, a DRUG is a biologically active unit contained in a substance used as therapeutic agent.

IT is the structure and properties of that chemical molecule that decides its medicinal properties and therapeutic actions. If such as substance contains only ONE type of biologically active unit, it is a SINGLE drug. If it contains different types of biologically active units, it is a COMPOUND drug.

It is obvious that most of the drugs we use in homeopathy – especially drugs of biological origin and complex minerals- contain diverse types of biologically active units, and hence they cannot be considered SINGLE drugs.

Molecular imprinting happens as individual molecules, and as such, potentized drugs prepared from a SINGLE drug substance will contain diverse types of molecular imprints representing the diverse types of individual constituent molecules contained in the substance. Those molecular imprints also act as individual units when applied in the organism. Hence, potentized drugs prepared by using a complex, seemingly single drug substance is actually a COMPOUND drug, containing diverse types of biologically active units, or ‘MOLECULAR IMPRINTS’.

IF you still cannot realize the meaninglessness and utter folly involved in talking about SINGLE DRUGS, it is the blindness caused by your dogmatic learning and lack of scientific awareness. I cannot help you for that!

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A MESSAGE I RECEIVED TODAY FROM Dagný Helgadottir Moore:

“Hi Chandran, I hope this little letter finds you well. I always find your explanations fascinating and want to introduce your research to the society of Icelandic homeopaths, of which I am president. Would you approve of a distribution of one of your articles amongst that group and if so – which article do you think explains it all? With warm regards. Dagný Helgadóttir.”

Thanks a lot, madam. My articles are open to all. Anybody can share any of my articles any where as they like. No permission required.

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Many homeopaths believe that drug substances are converted to ‘energy’ during potentization. ‘Matter’ getting ‘converted’ to ‘energy’ during potentization is a concept widely propagated by people who argue that homeopathy is ‘energy medicine’.

I would request those friends to seriously think over the point I try to make out here.

No doubt, “matter is nothing but a packages of ENERGY” as you say. But do you think matter can be ‘unpacked’ into energy by the simple mechanical process of ‘succussion and dilution’ involved in potentization?

Do you know how much energy you need to break even the chemical bonds that holds atoms together in a molecule? ‘Converting matter into energy’ means not only breaking of chemical bonds, but breaking atoms into subatomic particles, and subatomic particles into ‘energy’. How can anybody imagine we can make atomic division happening through our simple process of potentization?

Even if you make it happen, how can this ‘atomic energy’ you expect to preserve the ‘medicinal properties’ of drug substances? Do you know ‘medicinal properties’ of drug substances are related with the structure and properties at molecular level?

When matter is converted to energy, that energy will be same, whether you make it from sulphur, nux vomica or calcarea. Once you break the inter-atomic bonds within molecules, the atoms cannto preserve the properties of molecules from where they came from. An oxygen atom will have the properties of oxygen atom only, whether it come from nux, water or any other molecule. When you divide the atoms further into subatomic particles, protons and electrons will be same, irrespective of atoms they came from. If you further divide atoms to ‘release’ energy, the energy so produced will not differ according to the atoms it originated. With this primary scientific knowledge, how could yo imagine the ‘drug energy’ of complex substance to be preserved in the ‘energy’ produced by ‘unpacking’ of matter? Please remember, the medicinal property is decided by the molecular structure and chemical properties of drug substances, not by the universal ‘atomic energy’.

You know, water contains hydrogen and oxygen atoms. But the properties of water is not exhibited by hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen coming from water or any other source will have same properties. If hydrogen is divided into protons and electrons, they will not show any property of hydrogen. Protons coming from division of any atom will be similar in properties. If we further split these subatomic particles into ‘energy’, how can you expect that energy to show the properties of water?

Medicinal properties of substances are decided by their molecular level structure an chemical properties. That cannot be preserved in the ‘energy’ generated by division of that matter into subatomic level. This is primary scientific knowledge, even any high school student knows. But homeopaths prefer to forget all science they learned, in their eagerness to justify the unscientific theories they learned in the name of homeopathy. This is a very disappointing situation

For example, Atropine is a chemical compound with formula C17H23NO3 . It acts upon biological molecules and produce various molecular errors, expressed through certain groups of symptoms. But, if we divide that atropine into carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen, they will have properties entirely different from atropine. That is why i say, medicinal properties of drugs are determined by the structure and properties of molecules, not the ‘energy’ packed in them.

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I strongly disagree with the concept that “molecule get converted to atoms by each successive dilution”. Simple mechanical energy of ‘shaking’ the bottle a few times involved in potentization will not be enough to break the very strong chemical bonds between individual atoms contained in a molecule, and “convert molecules into atoms”. More over, individual “atoms” cannot retain the chemical or biological properties of a complex chemical molecule that constitute a drug. Water will lose its biological properties once it is “converted” into hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms. BRUCINE will lose all its peculiar biological properties once it is divided into carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Kindly think over.

DRUG MOLECULES cannot be divided into ATOMS during potentization.

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DRUG MOLECULES cannot “remain” in a dilution beyond AVOGADRO NUMBER. Chemical molecules cannot multiply by dilution. Their numbers will decrease by each dilution in a given sample, and will finally disappear when dilution crosses avogadro limit. No need of arguments over this point.

Then what is “remaining”? Is it “dynamic drug energy”? Is it “memory of water”? Is it “octave energy level”? Is it “nanoparticles”? Is it “molecular imprints”? What gives “medicinal power” to high dilution homeopathic drugs? What are the ACTIVE PRINCIPLES of those potentized drugs? What is the exact process happening during potentization? What is the molecular level BIOLOGICAL MECHANISM of homeopathic cure?

These are the fundamental question of homeopathy which homeopaths can no more evade from in a science-conscious community. Science has to be specific.

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One respected homeopath friend asks:

“Dear Chandran, as i have been introducing MIT to our homeopath group .they ask me about your idea about. the use of homeo remedies and that realy it works by smelling.what is your MIT STAND ON THE EFFECT OF SMELLING HOMEOPATHY REMEDIES?”

MY ANSWER:

“Sir, SMELLING or olfaction happens when the molecules of a substance interacts with the receptors in the nasal membranes. Inhaled substance enter blood stream through blood capillaries distributed in the membranes of respiratory tract. Molecular imprints also act the same way. They will be absorbed into blood stream. We know many toxic chemicals causes POISONING when inhaled. Potentized drugs act by same molecular mechanism even if they are absorbed from mouth, nasal passages or any other routes.”

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Some friends ask me to discuss my scientific ideas about homeopathy without criticizing ‘old beliefs’, ‘existing theories’ and ‘other personalities’. Do you think it is possible to promote scientific approach in homeopathy without criticizing and exposing all those totally unscientific and superstitious ‘existing theories’ and the ‘personalities’ who propagate such things?

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Hahnemann says in ORGANON: PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION:

“ACCORDING to the testimony of all ages, no occupation is more unanimously declared to be a conjectural art than medicine; consequently none has less right to refuse a searching enquiry as to whether it is well founded than it, on which man’s health, his most precious possession on earth, depends. I consider that it redounds to my honour that I am the only one in recent times who has subjected it to a serious honest investigation, and has communicated to the world the results of his convictions in writings published, some with, some without my name. In this investigation I found the way to the truth, but I had to tread it alone, very far from the common highway of medical routine. The farther I advanced from truth to truth, the more my conclusions (none of which I accepted unless confirmed by experience) led me away from the old edifice, which, being built up of opinions, was only maintained by opinions. The results of my convictions are set forth in this book. It remains to be seen whether physicians, who mean to act honestly by their conscience and by their fellow-creatures, will continue to stick to the pernicious tissue of conjectures and caprice, or can open their eyes to the salutary truth. I must warn the reader that indolence, love of ease and obstinacy preclude effective service at the altar of truth, and only freedom from prejudice and untiring zeal qualify for the most sacred of all human occupations, the practice of the true system of medicine.”

I FEEL THESE WORDS OF OUR MASTER ARE ESPECIALLY RELEVANT IN MY CASE:

“I consider that it redounds to my honor that I am the only one in recent times who has subjected it (homeopathy) to a serious honest investigation”.

“It remains to be seen whether physicians, who mean to act honestly by their conscience and by their fellow-creatures, will continue to stick to the pernicious tissue of conjectures and caprice, or can open their eyes to the salutary truth.”

“I must warn the reader that indolence, love of ease and obstinacy preclude effective service at the altar of truth, and only freedom from prejudice and untiring zeal qualify for the most sacred of all human occupations, the practice of the true system of medicine.”

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Scientifically, the term ‘hypothesis’ means a ‘proposed explanation’ or “educated guess” for a phenomenon that we observe around us. Every ‘proposed explanation’ cannot be considered a ‘scientific hypothesis’. To be a ‘scientific hypothesis’, the scientific method requires that one can test the hypothesis using available scientific tools and methodology. Every new scientific hypotheses are generally based on previous observations that could not be satisfactorily be explained with the existing scientific theories. The words “hypothesis” and “theory” are often used synonymous in common and informal usage, even though a ‘scientific hypothesis’ is not exactly the same as ‘a scientific theory’. A hypothesis should be proved ‘using scientific tools’ in order to become a scientific theory.

A ‘working hypothesis’ is a provisionally accepted hypothesis that is ready to be proved. Experimenters will have to test and reject several hypotheses before solving the given problem ultimately. Testability (using existing scientific tools), Simplicity (avoiding excessive numbers of entities), Scope (apparent application of the hypothesis to multiple cases of phenomena), Fruitfulness (hypothesis may help to explain further phenomena in the future), and Conservatism (fitting with existing recognized knowledge-systems) are considered to be the essential qualities of a good scientific ‘working’ hypothesis.

Homeopaths pausing as ‘masters’, ‘gurus’ ‘einsteins’ and ‘newtons’ falsely claim all their fanciful ideas and explanations to be ‘theories’ and ‘hypotheses’. Viewing on the basis of the scientific parameters described above, it is very much clear that most of the presently existing most celebrated ‘theories’ regarding homeopathy cannot be even considered as ‘scientific hypotheses’ since they contain concepts and conclusions that ‘could not be tested by any scientist using currently available scientific tools and methodology’ or do not ‘fit with existing recognized knowledge-systems’.

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If I am asked what is similimum, I would say similimum is the drug that contains the chemical molecules that could produce molecular inhibitions and symptoms in healthy organism EXACTLY SIMILAR to the molecular inhibitions and symptoms existing in the patient before us, by binding to same biological target molecules. Potentized forms of the similimum would contain molecular imprints of constituent molecules of the drug substance, which can bind to the pathogenic molecules due to complementary configurational affinity and remove the pathological molecular inhibitions.

To be a PERFECT SIMILIMUM, our drug should contain ALL the diverse molecules that could produce ALL the diverse molecular inhibitions and symptoms, so that in potentized form it would contain ALL the diverse molecular imprints required to remove ALL the diverse molecular inhibitions in the patient. If the selected drug does not contain ALL the diverse molecular imprints required for the patient, it will be PARTIAL SIMILIMUM. In such cases, we can make a PERFECT SIMILIMUM by combining two or more PARTIAL SIMILIMUMS indicated by the symptoms.

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According to MIT HYPOTHESIS, active principles of post-avogadro potentized drugs are MOLECULAR IMPRINTS of individual chemical molecules contained in the drug substances used for potentization.

As per this hypothesis, ‘molecular imprints’ are hydrogen-bonded supramolecular formations of water-ethyl alcohol molecules, into which the three-dimensional spacial conformations of drug molecules are imprinted or engraved as nanocavities, through a process of host-guest interactions or MOLECULAR IMPRINTING involved in the process of potentization.

These ‘molecular imprints’ can act as artificial binding sites or key holes for binding to the original drug molecules as well as any pathogenic molecule conformationally similar to the drug molecules.

When applied as therapeutic agent, these molecular imprints specifically bind to the pathogenic molecules having conformational affinity, thereby deactivating them and relieving the biological molecules from pathological molecular inhibitions.

This is the biological mechanism of homeopathic cure as proposed by MIT HYPOTHESIS.

Actually, the biological mechanism of cure proposed in this model is not a new idea. It is well accepted in modern molecular medicine and pharmacology, and is the basis of target-specific drug designing techniques currently very popular in pharmaceutical researches. There remains nothing to be proved on this idea.

Molecular imprinting in polymers (MIP) also is recently a very popular research area, a technique used in developing artificial binding sites in polymer matrices through a process of molecular level ‘host-guest’ interactions. These ‘molecular imprinted polymers’ are currently utilized in various laboratory procedures as molecular binding and filtering agents.

What I have been trying to do by MIT hypothesis is to adapt these well-accepted scientific concepts into the theoretical frame work of homeopathy, so that a scientific model could be developed to explain the biological mechanism of homeopathic cure. MIT hypothesis explains homeopathic potentization in terms of ‘molecular imprinting in water’, and homeopathic cure in terms of removal of molecular inhibitions.

Only thing remaining to be scientifically proved is that potentized homeopathic drugs contain ‘molecular imprints’. It raises the question whether water-ethyl alcohol mixture can act as a medium for molecular imprinting, similar to polymers. Various studies regarding supra molecular properties of water indicate some ‘polymer-like’ properties of water and formations of hydrogen-bonded nanoclusters in a micro-environment, which obviously opens up possibilities of molecular imprinting in water-ethyl alcohol matrix.

IF WE EXPERIMENTALLY PROVE THE FOLLOWING POINTS BY SCIENTIFIC METHODS,MIT HYPOTHESIS COULD BE CONSIDERED SCIENTIFICALLY VERIFIED AND RATIFIED:

a) high dilution drugs really work as curative agents when applied according to indications,

b) high dilution drugs works not only in living bodies, but also up on ‘in vitro’ biological samples,

c) high dilution drugs cannot interfere or prevent the normal interactions between biological molecules and their natural ligands,

d) high dilution drugs can antidote the biological effects of same drugs used in crude or molecular forms,

e) biological properties of high dilution drugs are different or reverse to those of same drugs in molecular forms,

f) high dilution drugs do not contain original drug molecules,

g) high dilution drugs and unpotentized water-alcohol mixture are similar in their chemical structure and properties,

h) high dilution drugs differ from unpotentized water-alcohol mixture regarding physical properties and various physical parameters,

i) high dilution drugs differ from unpotentized water-alcohol mixture regarding supra-molecular arrangements by formation of nano-clusters as could be observed by difference in spectroscopic studies,

j) Medicinal properties of high dilution drugs could be destroyed by applying strong heat, electric currents or other forms of electromagnetic energy, which will also change the characteristic physical properties of those potentized drugs,

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Hahnemann no where mentioned about miasms unrelated with INFECTIOUS AGENTS. He explained psora as miasm caused by ITCH infection, syphilis as miasm caused by syphilis infection, and sycosis as miasm caused by ‘figwart’ disease, or combined infection of HPV and gonorrhoea. No need of any confusion on that.

Only thing we have to research is, HOW an infectious disease can cause life long residual effects that can cause chronic ‘disease dispositions’. According to my view, it could happen only through ANTIBODIES generated against infectious agents. Antibodies can cause life long residual effects through OFF-TARGET inhibitions of biological molecules.

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If we browse through various leading homeopathic websites, we come across hundreds of ‘research articles’ propagating diverse types of imaginative ‘theories’ and ‘hypotheses’ written in highly scholastic and ‘scientific’ language, claiming to unravel the riddles of homeopathy once and for all. The authors will be ‘scientists’ or ‘academicians’ so much revered by the homeopathic community for their high academic ‘authority’, ‘professional credentials’ and ‘institutional background’ that no average person would dare to question their wisdom. Most of them are ‘prominent faces’ and ‘representatives’ of international homeopathy.

Most funny part about these ‘knowledge explosions on internet’ is that most of us never read those article, or fail to understand even if we dare to read them. Nobody is interested in what is actually said in them. Nobody makes even a simple comment. Nobody verifies the claims made in those articles. Nobody tries to differentiate grains from pebbles. We simply wonder at this ‘great’ piece of knowledge, and go on broadcasting this ‘wonderful knowledge’ by keeping on posting these ‘links’ wherever we have access, in a desperate endeavor to ‘educate’ the whole community!

No wonder, in spite of all these ‘ground-breaking’ researches, theories and hypotheses being regularly broadcast, homeopathy still remains where samuel hahnemann left it 200 hundred years ago. Nobody could so far provide even a scientifically convincing answer to the basic question “how homeopathy works”. All these great authors only contribute their best in enhancing confusions among homeopathic community through their writings and seminars- that is all.

To safeguard ourselves from confusions being created by these ever-new flooding of ‘researches’ ‘theories’ and ‘hypotheses’, I would suggest to use following questions as touch stones for their primary evaluation whenever you are introduced to a ‘new theory’:

1. Does this theory scientifically and logically explain the exact processes involved in homeopathic potentization?

2. Does this theory scientifically and logically answer the question ‘what are the exact active principles contained in potentized medicines”?

3. Does this theory scientifically and logically explain the exact molecular mechanisms by which these active principles act up on the organism to produce a therapeutic effect?

4. Does this theory scientifically and logically explain ‘Similia Similibus Curentur’ in a way fitting to modern scientific knowledge on one side, and to our homeopathic experiences on the other side?

If the answers for these FOUR FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS are found to be negative, simply dismiss those ‘theories’. They are nothing but hollow ‘scientific’ verbosity.

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If anybody ‘detected’ nanoparticles of ‘starting material’ in samples of 30c and 200c, it only proves the samples were not genuine high potencies as they are deemed to be. Otherwise, ‘molecules’ will have to ‘multiply’ indefinitely during potentization! I fear proponents of nanoparticle theory may come with such a ‘molecular multiplication’ theory to prove that ‘avogadro law is not applicable’ to homeopathic dilutions!

More over ‘nanoparticle theory’ has to be examined from another angle. When we claim homeopathy is nanomedicine, we are actually putting homeopathy under a great risk. Nanoparticles are a subject of much concern for scientific community, since it raises serious questions of nanotoxicity. If we say our drugs contain nanoparticles, it would be easy for our antagonists to attack us from the angle of nanotoxicity. If homeopathy is admitted to be nanomedicine, we can no longer claim it is ‘safe medicine’. In such a context, our drugs will have to be subjected to rigorous nanotoxicity studies and licensing system.

Let me quote from Wikipedia on Nanotoxicity:

“Nanomaterials, even when made of inert elements like gold, become highly active at nanometer dimensions. Nanotoxicological studies are intended to determine whether and to what extent these properties may pose a threat to the environment and to human beings. For instance, Diesel nanoparticles have been found to damage the cardiovascular system in a mouse model.
Calls for tighter regulation of nanotechnology have arisen alongside a growing debate related to the human health and safety risks associated with nanotechnology.

The smaller a particle is, the greater its surface area to volume ratio and the higher its chemical reactivity and biological activity. The greater chemical reactivity of nanomaterials results in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including free radicals. ROS production has been found in a diverse range of nanomaterials including carbon fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and nanoparticle metal oxides. ROS and free radical production is one of the primary mechanisms of nanoparticle toxicity; it may result in oxidative stress, inflammation, and consequent damage to proteins, membranes and DNA

The extremely small size of nanomaterials also means that they much more readily gain entry into the human body than largersized particles. How these nanoparticles behave inside the body is still a major question that needs to be resolved. The behavior of nanoparticles is a function of their size, shape and surface reactivity with the surrounding tissue. In principle, a large number of particles could overload the body’s phagocytes, cells that ingest and destroy foreign matter, thereby triggering stress reactions that lead to inflammation and weaken the body’s defense against other pathogens. In addition to questions about what happens if non-degradable or slowly degradable nanoparticles accumulate in bodily organs, another concern is their potential interaction or interference with biological processes inside the body. Because of their large surface area, nanoparticles will, on exposure to tissue and fluids, immediately adsorb onto their surface some of the macromolecules they encounter. This may, for instance, affect the regulatory mechanisms of enzymes and other proteins.

Nanomaterials are able to cross biological membranes and access cells, tissues and organs that larger-sized particles normally cannot. Nanomaterials can gain access to the blood stream via inhalation or ingestion. At least some nanomaterials can penetrate the skin; even larger microparticles may penetrate skin when it is flexed. Broken skin is an ineffective particle barrier, suggesting that acne, eczema, shaving wounds or severe sunburn may accelerate skin uptake of nanomaterials. Then, once in the blood stream, nanomaterials can be transported around the body and be taken up by organs and tissues, including the brain, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen,bone marrow and nervous system. Nanomaterials have proved toxic to human tissueand cell cultures, resulting in increased oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine production and cell death. Unlike larger particles, nanomaterials maybe taken up by cell mitochondria and the cell nucleus. Studies demonstrate the potential for nanomaterials to cause DNA mutation and induce major structural damage to mitochondria, even resulting in cell death. Size is therefore a key factor in determining the potential toxicity of a particle. However it is not the only important factor.”

If we accept ‘nanoparticles’ as the active principles of potentized homeopathicmedicines, ongoing nanotoxicology studies will have to be made applicable to homeopathic medicines also.

If the present apprehensions in the scientificworld regarding nanotoxicity finally turns out into a strict legislative processes globally, and homeopathic medicines are included in the group of ’nanoparticle’ materials, homeopathy will have a very tough time to come.

My request homeopaths to refrain from creating unnecessary problems for homeopathy by claiming it is nanomedicine, even if due to ignoance regarding what the word actually implies.

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Persons holding ‘high positions’, considered to be very ‘big’ and ‘knowledgeable’ by the common man should apply extreme care when commenting on topics they are not sure about or unknown to them. Even their casual comments will be taken as pieces of great truth, and community will get misguided at least for some time.

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In its scientific meaning, Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials. One nanometer is one-millionth of a millimeter.

While claiming potentized medicine is nanomedicine, we have to consider certain fundamental facts related with number of molecules, avogadro number and dilutions, and examine whether there is any chance for presence of even a single molecule of drug substance in high potency drugs.

Avogadro constant is a fixed number that helps us to calculate the number of atoms or molecules contained in a given amount of substance.

In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant is defined as the ratio of the number of constituent particles (usually atoms or molecules) in a sample to the amount of substance (unit mole). Thus, it is the proportionality factor that relates the molar mass of an entity, i.e., the mass per amount of substance, to the mass of said entity. The Avogadro constant expresses the number of elementary entities per mole of substance and it has the value 6.022141×10*23

Molar mass constant is a fixed number- 1.

The molar mass of atoms of an element is given by the atomic weight of the element multiplied by the molar mass constant

H = 1.007 97(7) × 1 g/mol = 1.007 97(7) g/mol

S = 32.065(5) × 1 g/mol = 32.065(5) g/mol

Cl = 35.453(2) × 1 g/mol = 35.453(2) g/mol

Fe = 55.845(2) × 1 g/mol = 55.845(2) g/mol.

Some elements are usually encountered as molecules, e.g. hydrogen (H2), sulfur (S8), chlorine (Cl2). The molar mass of molecules of these elements is the molar mass of the atoms multiplied by the number of atoms in each molecule:

H2 = 2 × 1.007 97(7) × 1 g/mol = 2.015 88(14) g/mol

S8 = 8 × 32.065(5) × 1 g/mol = 256.52(4) g/mol

Cl2 = 2 × 35.453(2) × 1 g/mol = 70.906(4) g/mol.

The molar mass of a compound is given by the sum of the standard atomic weights of the atoms which form the compound multiplied by the molar mass constant:

NaCl = [22.989 769 28(2) + 35.453(2)] × 1 g/mol = 58.443(2) g/mol

Approximately, Atomic weight of hydrogen is 1, and a molecule of hydrogen contains 2 atoms. Molar mass of hydrogen is 2 gm/mol. As such, 2 grams of hydrogen will contain 602214000000000000000000 molecules of hydrogen.

Atomic weight of oxygen is 16. A molecules contains 2 atoms. Molar mass of oxygen is 32 gm/mol. That means, 32 grams of oxygen will contain 602214000000000000000000 molecules of oxygen.

Atomic weight of sulphur is 32, and a molecule is formed by 8 atoms. Molar mass of sulphur is 256 gm/mol. 256 gms of sulphur contains 602214000000000000000000 mlecules of sulphur

Molar mass of water is 18 gm/mol. That means, 18 grams of water contains 602214000000000000000000 H2O molecules.

Let us consider what happens during serial dilution of SULPHUR.

If SULPHUR Q is prepared by adding 1 gm f sulphur to 100 ml of solvent, it will contain 1/256 gm mol of sulphur. That means, 1oo ml of tincture contains 602214000000000000000000/256 molecules of sulphur. It will be 23523984375000 molecules.

Since 1 ml of tincture is added to 99 ml solvent to prepare first potency, it contains 23523984375000/100 or 235239843750molecules.

Since each stage of dilution is at the rate of 1:100,

100 ml of 2c contains 2352398437.5
100 ml f 3c contains 23523984.38
100 ml of 3c contains 235239.84
100 ml of 4c contains 2352.4
100 ml of 5c contains 23.52
100ml f 6c contains 2.4
100 ml of 7c contains 0.02

Since molecules cannot exist as fractions, there is no chance for 100 ml of 7c dilution to contain even a single molecule of SULPHUR.

Remember, to prepare 30 c, we have to dilute this 7c preparation 23 more stages in 1:100 ratio. That means, it is a 1:10000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 dilution of 7c.

How can anybody with sane mind can imagine ‘nanoparticles’ of sulphur to be present in a 30c potency? Actually, nanoparticles are not molecules, but larger aggregations of molecules.

We were considering 100 ml. Homeopaths use doses much below 1 drop or fractions of a drop. Even if there was a few nanoparticles in 100ml, how can it be distributed evenly in each drop and fractions of drop? What is the magic you imagine to happen?

When declaring ‘nanoparticles are the active principles of potentized drugs,’ why not these people realize they are talking utter nonsense?

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Homeopaths should understand, homeopathy will not become more scientific, or acceptable to scientific community, merely by sprinkling some high-sounding terms such as ‘nano-particles’. When saying homeopathy is nanomedicine, one is bound to logically explain how potentized drugs could retain ‘nano’ particles even in dilutions much above avogadro lmit. They should also explain the biological mechanism by which those nanoparticles act as therapeutic agents according to similia similibus curentur. We should remember, all homeopathic medicines are not prepared from simple “metallic elements” alone, but are made from vegetable, mineral and animal substances containing highly complex molecules. Proponents of nanoparticle theory will have to explain how “nano-particles” of ‘metal elements’ claimed to be detected in highly diluted drugs can mimic the medicinal properties arising from the molecular level properties of our vegetable and animal drugs containing diverse types of very large and complex chemical molecules.

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Some short-sighted homeopaths who pretend to represent the whole homeopathic community try to appear ‘scientific’, by echoing the claim that homeopathy is nanomedicie. They are bringing some ‘big’ personalities with ‘high credentials’ as their advocates in support of their claims. This trend has become somewhat like a fashion after the publication of certain project report by IIT -B students which claims detection of ‘nanoparticles’ in potentized drugs. A lot of new imaginative theories are being proposed, which try to present wonderful ‘models’ for mechanism of action of potentized drugs on the basis of nanoparticle theory. I would request homeopathic community to carefully examine the IIT team’s work and interpretations with a rational and logical mindset, before getting carried away by ‘models’ based on that ‘invention’.

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Whatever ‘theories’ people talk -be it nanoparticle or anything else- regarding ACTIVE PRINCIPLES of potentized drugs, ask them to explain the BIOLOGICAL MECHANISM of their therapeutic action in a way fitting to modern scientific understanding of ‘ligand-target’ interactions as well as bio-molecular ‘inhibition and activation’ involved in disease and cure. Ask them to explain their theories in a way fitting to ‘similia similibus curentur’ also. If they cannot give scientifically viable explanations concerning these two aspects, discard their ‘theories outright, even if they are ‘people with big names and credentials’.

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We have to answer a few fundamental questions regarding homeopathy and prove them according to scientific methods, so that this noble therapeutic system can claim for its rightful status as an advanced branch of modern molecular medicine. I am here trying to sum up these basic questions:

1. What is the real scientific explanation for ‘similia similibus curentur’?

2. What really happens at ‘material’ level during the process of potentisation?

3. What are the active principles of potentized medicines?

4. What is the biological mechanism by which potentized medicines remove the pathological molecular inhibitions to produce cure?

Unless these questions are answered according to scientific method, we cannot claim homeopathy to be a scientific medical system.

MY ANSWERS TO THESE QUESTIONS:

Question 1: What is the real scientific explanation for ‘similia similibus curentur’?

In scientific terms, ‘similia similibus curentur’ means, “pathological molecular inhibitions underlying a disease and expressed through specific groups of subjective and objective symptoms can be removed by applying ‘molecular imprints’ of drug substances, which in crude form could produce similar molecular inhibitions in healthy individuals, expressed through similar groups of symptoms”.

Question 2: What really happens at ‘material’ level during the process of potentisation?

During initial stages of drug potentization, crude drug substances undergoes division and ionization, therby individual constituent molecules getting freed from intermolecular bonds. During progressive dilution and succussion, these constituent drug molecules undergo a process of ‘molecular imprinting’. During this process, three dimensional ‘molecular imprints’ or hydrosomes of drug molecules are formed in the supra-molecular clusters of water/alcohol medium through stabilization of hydration shells. Due to serial dilution, drug molecules gradually get removed from medium, and by 12c it becomes free of drug molecules and only ‘molecular imprints’ remain.

Question 3: What are the active principles of potentized medicines?

‘Molecular imprints’ of constituent drug molecules are the active principles of potentized homeopathic drugs.

Question 4: What is the biological mechanism by which potentized medicines remove the pathological molecular inhibitions to produce cure?

‘Diseases’ are errors in vital processes due to derangement of biochemical pathways in the organism, caused by inhibitions of biological molecules by binding of exogenous or endogenous pathogenic molecules. ‘Molecular imprints’ contained in potentized drugs selectively binds to the pathogenic molecules having complementary affinity due to the configurational similarity of pathogenic molecules and original drug molecules used for potentization. This configurational similarity is decided by ‘similarity of symptoms’. Pathogenic molecules are thus entrapped by the ‘molecular imprints’, thereby relieving the biological molecules from inhibitions. Disease is cured at molecular level itself.

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Let us examine what actually happens during homeopathic potentization.

During trituration of crude drugs, and during early stages of dilution and succussion, individual molecules contained in the drug substance are liberated by breakage of inter-molecular bonds that held them together. By this process,drug molecules get ionized and more reactive, and even insoluble substances thereby become soluble in the water-alcohol medium. Triturations and lower dilutions are biologically more active than crude drugs and mother tinctures, due to these free molecules and and ions they contain.

Drug molecules are subjected to a process of ‘hydration’ when they are dissolved in water-alcohol mixture. Hydration takes place by the water-alcohol molecules arranging themselves around independent drug molecules, and forming a supra-molecular network around them through hydrogen bonding. These supra-molecular networks are called ‘hydration shells’. Hydrogen bonds of water molecules are normally weak, but presence of comparatively heavy ethyl alcohol molecules attached to them make the hydration shells more stable. A clathrate-like supra-molecular ‘host-guest’ complexes are formed, where drug molecules act as ‘guests’ and water-ethyl alcohol molecules as ‘hosts’. This is what happen during early stages of potentization.

During serial process of diluting and violent shaking, ‘guest’ molecules happen to escape from ‘guest-host’ complexes, and empty ‘hydration shells’ remains. Formation of new ‘guest-host’ complexes and generation of empty ‘hydration shells’ continues. Due to serial dilutions, the concentration of drug molecules is reduced by each stage, same time increasing the concentration of empty ‘hydration shells’. By the time potentization crosses 12c or Avogadro’s limit, the medium become totally devoid of all drug molecules, and will be concentrated by only empty ‘hydration shells’ representing diverse types of constituent drug molecules.

It has been reported to have observed that supra-molecular formations of water, being part of ‘clathrate’ complexes can maintain their network structures even after the ‘guest’ molecules are removed from them. More over, ‘clathrates’ are found to have behaving some what like crystals, and existing ‘clathrates’ can induce the formation of similar networks even in the absence of ‘guest’ molecules’. All these complex factors have to be taken into account when studying the molecular processes involved in potentization.

As such, homeopathic potencies above 12c contains only empty ‘hydration’ shells remaining after the removal of drug molecules from the ‘guest-host’ complexes formed during earlier stages of dilutions. These empty ‘hydration shells’ are actually supra-molecular clusters of water-ethyl alcohol molecules, carrying 3-dimensional nanocavities remaining after removal of ‘guest’ drug molecules. Actually, these nanocavities are ‘molecular imprints’ of drug molecules, which can act as artificial binding sites for pathogenic molecules similar to the drug molecules in their molecular configurations. This ‘configurational affinity of ‘molecular imprints’ towards specific pathogenic molecules make them powerful therapeutic agents. Similia Similibus Curentur is logically explained in terms of these molecular imprints.

Since I consider molecular imprints as the active principles of potentized drugs, I do not subscribe to the idea that ‘higher’ potencies are more ‘powerful’, and I see no special benefit by using ‘higher’ potencies.

I think 12c is enough for completing molecular imprinting and removal of all drug molecules from the medium. What happens at molecular level during further potentization is still an open question for me. In supra-molecular chemistry, there is research going on regarding a phenomenon known as ‘induced molecular assembly’. That means, supra-molecular clusters acting as templates and inducing other molecules to form similar clusters. We know, ‘induced molecular assembly’ is involved in crystallization, clathrate formation etc. Even ‘prions’, which are misfolded proteins, multiply by ‘induced misfolding’. Antibodies, which are ‘molecular imprinted proteins’, also multiply by ‘inducing’ other globulin proteins to change configuration. Molecular imprints, which are supra-molecular clusters of water, may also multiply by the process of ‘induced molecular assembly’, where existing ‘molecular imprints’ may act as templates and induce formation of similar molecular imprints. It is only a possibility, which need in-depth study, which may provide us a rational way of resolving the riddle of high potencies. For the time being, I leave it as an open question.

Even though ‘molecular imprints’ may be formed in higher potencies through the process of ‘induced molecular assembling’, by no way that makes higher potencies more ‘powerful’ or ‘potent’. By 12c, all drug molecules will be removed from the medium, and medium gets saturated with ‘molecular imprints’. 12c will be ideal homeopathic. therapeutic agent. I see no special benefits by going ‘higher’. But, diluting medicines while administering by mixing with water may be beneficial, by increase the number of molecular imprints.

Triturations and low potencies containing original drug molecules act as ‘competitive’ factors towards pathogenic molecules in binding to biological molecules. But, ‘molecular imprints’ contained in potencies above 12c act as ‘complementary’ factors, binding directly to specific pathogenic molecules due to their configurational affinity. Obviously, low potencies and high potencies act therapeutically by different molecular mechanisms.

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According to hahnemann, miasm of PSORA is the ‘chronic susceptibility to disease’ caused by the residual effects of ITCH INFECTION. He never talks about PSORA unrelated with ‘infectious agents of itch’. It was based on the keen observation of a genius.

With the very limited scientific knowledge available during his time, it was impossible for hahnemann to explain HOW an ‘infection of itch’ can cause ‘chronic susceptibility to diseases’. His limitations are understandable.

With the advanced scientific knowledge available NOW, we are in a position to answer the questions our master left unanswered. It is well known now that ANTIBODIES are generated by our innate defense system when infectious agents or any ‘proteins’ ALIEN to our genetic substance enter our body. It is also known that these antibodies will remain long time or even for the whole life in our body even after the concerned infections are subsided. These ANTIBODIES can attack various OFF-TARGET biological molecules in the body, and cause pathological molecular errors in long course. This type of ‘residual effects’ of infectious diseases results in ‘chronic susceptibility to diseases’. Antibodies are transferred from mother to infant through fetal circulation, and also from mother to child through breast milk. Antibodies could also be transferred from one person to another through blood transfusions.

It is now well clear HOW ‘infections of itch’ causes chronic ‘miasm’ of PSORA as hahnemann rightly observed.

Now we can scientifically define miasm of PSORA as the “chronic susceptibility to diseases arising from off-target bio-molecular inhibitions caused by antibodies generated in the body against infectious agents of itch disease”.

This definition fits well to hahnemann’s observations on one side, and modern scientific knowledge on the other side.

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In PHILOSOPHICAL LECTURES ( p.135), Dr J T Kent says:

“Psora is a state of susceptibility to disease from willing evils”.

Kindly read CHRONIC DISEASES carefully. Hahnemann has very lucidly explained how miasm of psora develops from ‘infections of itch disease’. No where the master says psora is a miasm caused by ‘willing evils’.

This is a classical example of ‘evils’ done by Dr Kent to homeopathy.

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Dr J T KENT says in LESSER WRITINGS (p.654]:

“Thinking, willing and doing are the 3 things in life from which finally proceed the chronic miasms”.

Dr Hahnemann said miasms originates from ‘infectious agents”. He explains PSORA as miasm resulting from infection of itch, SYPHILIS as miasm originating from ‘syphilis’ infection, and SYCOSIS as miasm originaing from infection of ‘gonorrhoea’ and ‘figwart’ disease.

Which MASTER we should ‘follow’ for learning miasms? Dr Kent, or Dr Hahnemann?

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According to your understanding, what actually happens during homeopathic potentization? What are the ‘active principles’ of our drugs potentized above avogadro limit or 12 c? What is the exact biological mechanism by which our potentized drugs produce cure according to the principle ‘similia similibus curentur’? Those who believe in ‘dynamic drug energy’, kindly keep away. We need an answer that is rational, and fits to modern scientific understanding.

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Dr. J T Kent says: “A man who cannot believe in God cannot become a homeopath.” [Lesser Writings- p.671], and ‘You cannot divorce medicine and theology.” [Lesser Writings, p.641]

Does these statements reflect a scientific approach towards medical science? Do you agree Dr Kent is right?

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