REDEFINING HOMEOPATHY

Chandran K C Explains Homeopathy As Molecular Imprints Therapeutics (MIT)

‘Thermo-Luminance Studies Of Ultra-high Dilutions’ Provides Proof For ‘Molecular Imprinting’


“Potentized medicines contain supra-molecular clusters of water/ethyl alcohol, different from control medium, which will be evident from spectroscopic studies.”

This was one of my predictions proposed to be verified, as part of proving the concept of ‘molecular imprinting’ according to scientific methods.

I think the remarkable work discussed below, done by Louis Rey on thermo-luminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride, and published in December 2002, provides crucial support as a very strong proof for this very important prediction.

As per the reported work, ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride (10−30g cm−3) have been irradiated by X- and gamma rays at 77 K, then progressively re-warmed to room temperature. During that phase, their thermo-luminescence has been studied and it was found that, despite their dilution beyond the Avogadro number, the emitted light was specific of the original salts dissolved initially.

This wonderful observation that  high dilutions of salts very much above avogadro number retains the specific thermo-luminance patterns reminding of of original salts seems to be very crucial. This phenomenon could be well explained only in terms of supramolecular nanostructures of water carrying the imprints of exact ‘conformations’  of ‘individual’ molecules of salts, as explained by MIT concepts.

Thermo-luminance studies have been developed and utilized so far as a “tool to study the structure of solids, mainly ordered  crystals”. In the present study, the researchers successfully utilized it in ultra-high aqueous dilutions, which demonstrates the short range ‘crystalline’ character of water as well as high dilution preparations.

Actually, the researchers took up this work to ‘challenge’ the ‘water memory’ theory, but proved it otherwise. They confess in their report: “we thought that it would be of interest to challenge the theory according which preexistent ‘structures’ in the original liquid, developed around some added chemicals, could survive a great number of successive dilutions when done under vigorous mechanical stirring”.

Another important point to be noted is that the researchers did not use ‘commercial samples’ as most ‘researches’ do, but prepared themselves 15c dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride under the guidance of boiron labs. This fact provides more scientific credence to this study.

The study “showed quite clearly that the initial addition of a solute (NaCl and LiCl) in the original D2O leaves a permanent  effect even when, by successive dilutions made under strong vibration, all traces of solute have disappeared.” The results were reproduced in several repeated experiments, “beyond any ambiguity”.

It should be specifically pointed out, researchers had no any idea of Molecular Imprinting. They propose the following hypothesis for explaining their observation:

“As a working hypothesis, we propose that this phenomenon results from a marked structural change in the hydrogen bond network initiated at the onset by the presence of the dissolved ions and maintained in the course of the dilution process, probably thanks to the successive vigorous mechanical stirrings.”

See, this hypothesis comes very close to the concept of Molecular Imprinting!

Thermally stimulated luminescence—often called thermo-luminescence—is a well known phenomenon amongst the thermally stimulated processes (thermally stimulated conductivity—thermally stimulated electron emission—thermogravimetry—differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, etc.). Its theory and applications have been fully developed inter alia by McKeever, Chen and Visocekas and it proved to be a most interesting tool to study the structure of solids, mainly ordered  crystals. To that end, the studied material is “activated” at low-temperature, usually by radiant energy (UV, X-rays, gamma rays, electron beams, or neutrons) which most generally creates electrons–holes pairs which become separately “trapped” at different energy levels. Then, when the irradiated material is warmed up, the heating serves as a trigger to release the initially accumulated energy and the trapped electrons and holes move and recombine. A characteristic glow is emitted most often under the shape of different successive peaks according to the depths of the initial traps. As a general rule this phenomenon is observed in ordered crystals though it can be equally seen in disordered materials such as glasses. In that mechanism, imperfections in the lattice play a major role and are considered to be the place where luminescent centres appear. Thus, thermoluminescence is a good tool to study these imperfections and understand how they appear in the crystal.

This is exactly along those lines that the researchers carried our first investigations, starting, this time, from liquids which were turned into stable solids by low-temperature cooling.

Working essentially with water—mainly deuterium oxide—they have shown that the thermoluminescent glow of irradiated hexagonal ice consisted in two major peak areas—Peak 1 near 120 K and Peak 2 near 166 K  having well-defined emission spectra the D2O samples giving a much higher signal than the H2O ones.

In both cases, un-irradiated samples gave no signals whatsoever. For both D2O and H2O it was shown that the relative intensity of the thermoluminescence glow was a function of the irradiation dose and, that at least for Peak 2, it did show a maximum between 1 and 10 kGy .

As a first hypothesis on the nature of the emission itself it has been suggested by Teixeira that Peak 2 could be connected to the hydrogen-bond network within the ice which, in turn, could result from the structure of the original liquid sample, whilst Peak 1 looked to be closely related to the molecule. This strengthens the views on the involvement of hydrogen bonds in this mechanism.

To develop this concept further, the researchers did select to study the effect of lithium chloride on the thermoluminescence of irradiated D2O ice since this particular substance is known to suppress hydrogen bonds. The result, indeed, is spectacular and, at the relatively low concentration of 0:1M,  Peak 2 is totally erased whereas the basic emission of Peak 1 remains almost unchanged.

At that point the researchers thought that it would be of interest to challenge the theory according which pre-existent “structures” in the original liquid, developed around some added chemicals, could survive a great number of successive dilutions when done under vigorous mechanical stirring.

To that end they prepared, courtesy of the BOIRON LABORATORIES, ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride by successive dilutions to the hundredths, all done under vigorous mechanical stirring (initially 1 g in 100 cm3, then 1 cm3 of this solution in 99 cm3 of pure D2O … and so on) until they  reached— theoretically—at the 15th dilution, a “concentration” of10−30 g cm−3. A reference sample of D2O alone was also prepared according to this technique, still keeping vigorous agitation (150 strokes=7:5 s at each successive “dilution” step).

They did proceed, then, to the “activation” of these materials by irradiation according the following experimental protocol.

One cubic centimeter of each solution is placed in aluminium test cavities of 20 mm diameter and 2 mm depth and frozen to −20◦C on a cold metallic block. The frozen systems are kept 24 h at −20◦C to achieve stability into their crystallization patternand they are immersed into liquid nitrogen and kept at −196◦C for 24 h.

In a first set of experiments the frozen ice disks are irradiated at 77 K with 100 kV X-rays to achieve a dose of 0:4 kGy (30 min). Previous determinations were done to check that the disks having identical positions in the field did receive the same dose (dosimetry has been done using Harwell, FWT, and alanine dosimeters).

After irradiation, all the “activated” samples are transferred into a liquid nitrogen container and kept, there, for a week-time, to even out whatever small differences could exist between them.

Finally, all samples are placed in the thermoluminescence equipment and their respective glow recorded—with both a photo-multiplier and a CCD camera connected to a spectrograph—in the course of rewarming  (3=min) between 77 and  13 K, as has been done in our previous published experiments.

Much to their surprise, the experimental results do show—without any ambiguity— that for an X-ray dose of 0:4 kGy the thermoluminescence glows of the three  systems were substantially different . These findings did prove to be reproducible in the course of many different identical experiments.

To compare the curves between them the researchers normalized the emitted light readings taking Peak 1 as the reference. In doing so, we obtain for Peak 2 the different curves presented which show quite clearly that the initial addition of a solute (NaCl and LiCl) in the original D2O leaves a permanent  effect even when, by successive dilutions made under strong vibration, all traces of solute have disappeared.  More remarkable were the fact that, by far, lithium chloride demonstrates a stronger hydrogen bond suppressing “ghost” effect which could be related to the larger size of the lithium ion.

A second set of experiments done with gamma rays (courtesy of CELESTIN Reactor, COGEMA, Marcoule), at a higher dose (19 kGy) did confirm these findings

It appears, therefore, that the structural state of a solution made in D2O can be modified by the addition of selected solutes like LiCl and NaCl. This modification remains even when the initial molecules have disappeared and the effect is the same at different irradiation doses (0.4 –19 kGy) and for different radiant sources (X-rays, gamma rays). As a working hypothesis, the researchers propose that this phenomenon results from a marked structural change in the hydrogen bond network initiated at the onset by the presence of the dissolved ions and maintained in the course of the dilution process, probably thanks to the successive vigorous mechanical stirrings.

Researchers had no any idea of Molecular Imprinting. They proposes the following hypothesis for explaining their observation:

“As a working hypothesis, we propose that this phenomenon results from a marked structural change in the hydrogen bond network initiated at the onset by the presence of the dissolved ions and maintained in the course of the dilution process, probably thanks to the successive vigorous mechanical stirrings.”

See, this hypothesis comes very close to the concept of Molecular Imprinting!

If we fail to explain the observations of this monumental research in terms of Molecular Imprinting, there remains the danger that it will be hijacked by ‘energy medicine’ theoreticians, by interpreting in terms of ‘essence of drugs’, ‘information’, ‘vibrations’ and the like. Actually, Jan Scholten has already done that exercise, by saying ‘information’ of drugs  imprinted in water are the cause of thermoluminence observed by the researchers. Then he very cleverly fits this thermoluminence into his energy medicine frame work of ‘bioluminence’, vibrations, vital force, resonance and other pseudoscientific theories.

To be specific, precise and fitting to modern scientific knowledge system and its accepted paradigms, it is better to say ‘molecular imprints’ of original drug molecules are the cause of similarity of thermoluminence the researchers could observe. Such an explanation will clearly demonstrate that we are talking about the ‘complementary’ shape of drug molecules imprinted into nanostructures of water, which produce therapeutic effects by acting as ‘artificial binding sites’ for pathogenic molecules.

(Read this report  in its full form at http://www.janscholten.com/janscholten/Evidence_files/Rey.thermoluminescence.pdf  E-mail address: louis.rey@bluewin.ch (L. Rey)

7 Comments

  1. It never matters by the difference between ‘top layer’, or ‘bottom layer’. It means somehow non-homogeneity has been established. For heavier molecules it may be more concentrated towards the bottom; for lighter molecules towards the top. Whenever you try to pick up a drop from any surface of the solution the solute molecules will move at a higher speed with the fluvial material. It does not mean the remaining part of the solution will be devoid of solute. Take a simple example. When a bottle of lemonade is freshly opened and drunk, there is a sharp taste of soda water. If one deeply occludes the mouth of the bottle with a thumb, shakes it vigorously, and quickly discards some part of the liquid in the same manner for four to five times, the sharpness of taste of the remaining part of the drink would fall significantly. Here the carbon dioxide molecules of soda water would flow away very fast (or become fluvial) with the discarded volume. It does not indicate that the remaining part of the drink would be free from carbon dioxide molecule. You repeat the procedure; some carbon dioxide molecule would unduly flow away again. You cannot tell when all the carbon dioxide molecules would go. Hence, ‘critical dilution’ like that of Vmax of an enzyme is an abstract concept. You can go very close to it, but never reach. Attainment of non-homogeneity, according to the proposed model, due to gradual addition of ethanol and ritualized succussion plays a crucial role for the materialistic action of homeopathic medicines. Precipitating ability of alcohol is not a new concept. The method for precipitation of proteins from their aqueous solution by the gradual addition of cold ethanol, as derived by Cohn in 1941, is a good example of secondary attainment of non-homogeneity. The positive and negative charges of protein molecules remain separated widely in aqueous medium due to high dielectric constant of water (approx. 80). By the gradual addition of ethanol, having low dielectric constant (about 24) the attraction between opposite charges within protein molecule increases and they aggregate and precipitate. The concept is true for not only proteins, but for all charged molecules, having high molecular weight. Hydrated charged molecules become concentrated at the bottom region of the ethanol solution and if the bound water is removed, the charged molecules become precipitated, nicely implemented in DNA and RNA isolation technique from their solutions. For low molecular substances, this event does not occur spontaneously, but there is always a tendency of separation. Thus if the drop is taken from the non homogenous part of the solution you cannot predict when zero molecular stage would reach. Hence, Avogadro’s limit does not exist. We all know that one mole of any material contains 6.023X1023 molecules, but most of us cannot imagine how large number it is. If the total weight of earth were expressed in kilograms, it would be 5.976X1024 (60X1023), just ten times larger than Avogadro number. Hence, if we allot a molecule for each ten kilograms mass of earth, some molecules would remain unutilized. Hence diluting such a huge number of molecules away by simple serial dilution is not an easy job, because it should be assured that homogeneity should be maintained in spite of repeated succussion in the solution along the entire process of 12 steps of dilution.
    It should be noted here that alteration in hydrogen bonded crystal structure of water is not the cause, but the effect of existence of medicinal property. The medicine molecule becomes so tightly hidden within the solvent molecules it remains almost non-detectable. Only these are known by alteration of hydrogen bonded network, which was experimentally detected by Louis Rey (2003). If you stick to your hydrogen bond theory you would have to answer five unpleasant questions:
    1) If we presume that water does store and transmit information of concerning solutes by means of its hydrogen-bonded network, solutes of the body fluid may re-equilibrate them and form newly clustered network with altered information. Then how can you expect medicinal cure?
    2) The purest water in earth should be considered grossly contaminated. This contamination may well have a major influence, and itself be influenced by the structuring in the water it encounters. The diluting away substance is much scanty than the contaminant. Then tell me, which one is the active principle of homeopathic medicine, the starting material or impurity?
    3) Temperature, pressure, magnetism etc can change the equilibrium condition of water cluster and that may last for weeks even in the absence of these factors. Pulsed NMR study reported that succussion itself might also have an effect on structuring and destructuring of the hydrogen-bonded network. Such mechanically induced hydrogen bond breakage has been reported to last for weeks. Therefore, the role of succussion, taking a chemical agent as starting material, in preparing homeopathic medicine remains unclear. May the difference between peak patterns of LiCl 15CH solution and succussed water 15CH solution appeared due to any slightest difference between the processes of succussion?
    4) If alteration of hydrogen bond is the only criterion there is no relation with the amount of medicine. A drop of medicine can change the hydrogen bonded network of a cup of water. If it does so there will be no difference between doses in patient and prover. Likewise, can a single drop of medicine is able to cure a large number of fishes suffering from ulcer (with identical symptoms), in a pond? If the medicine in the form of hydrogen bonded network is considered ‘healthy water’, then how can it bring disease symptoms in provers?
    5) Alteration of hydrogen bonded networks is the cause of all medicinal properties. It should be similar in all the potencies. Then what is the basic difference between higher and lower potency?

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    • Chandran Nambiar

      Sir, would you kindly answer following three simple questions:

      1. According to you, what is the exact process happening during potentization?

      2. What are the ‘active principles of potentized drugs?

      3. What is the molecular level biological mechanism by which potentized drugs produce therapeutic effect, according to similia similibus curentur?

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  2. In the original paper it was seen that Louis Rey (2003) has taken Ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride (15CH potency) prepared in D2O, Which was later irradiated by X- and gamma-rays at 77 K, then progressively rewarmed to room temperature. A set of 15CH potency D2O was kept for reference purpose, which was irradiated in the same manner. During that phase, thermoluminescence of the three samples has been studied and it was found that, despite their dilution beyond the Avogadro number, the emitted light was specific of the original salts dissolved initially. The initial addition of a solute (NaCl and LiCl) in the original D2O leaves a permanent effect even when, by successive dilutions made under strong vibration, all traces of solute have disappeared. Thermoluminescent glow of ultra-high dilutions in D2O after irradiation by X-rays at 77◦K (0:4 kGy) of the reference 15CH sample of D2O was maximum, then NaCl and LiCl. More remarkable was that, lithium chloride demonstrates a stronger hydrogen bond suppressing “ghost” effect, which could be related to the larger size of the lithium ion. As a working hypothesis, Rey stated that this phenomenon results from a marked structural change in the hydrogen bond network initiated at the onset by the presence of the dissolved ions and maintained in the course of the dilution process, probably successive vigorous mechanical stirrings was responsible for that. It can be explained by fluvial molecular model in a different way. We know that water has a high dielectric constant (=80) than other solvents, so it can dissolve almost every solute molecules by separating their positive and negative charges wide apart, the same is true for NaCl and LiCl, but during ritualized succussion and infinitesimal dilution, where the number of solute molecules is depleting drastically, the number of solvent molecule covering the surface of solute molecule becomes ever increasing. Eventually, the entire surface of the solute molecule becomes supersaturated with solvent molecule. Besides hydrogen bonding between H2O molecules, a sort of attraction exists between its atoms, called van der Waals force. When these atoms come very close in course of potentization, such kind of attraction increases several fold, forming an elastic screen around the NaCl or LiCl molecule, which brings opposite charges of the same close together and the effective dielectric constant of the solvent falls. The solute molecules show a tendency to get more concentrated towards the bottom of the solution. Actually the solution becomes non-homogenous and all the solute molecules strike the inner wall of the container. After repeated process of ‘potentization’ a ‘critical dilution’ is reached. If one tries to transfer a drop of such dilution to the next vial after rigorous succussion, most of the solute molecules gaining much higher speed than the solvent molecules rush to the next container (the newly available surface) along with the drop, like any gaseous substance. These fluvial molecules can not return to the original vial due to attainment of non-homogeneity. Hence, solute molecules may remain much above 12th centesimal dilution. For more details see http://www.neohahnemannism.com
    Dr Sanjib Chattopadhyay

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    • Chandran Nambiar

      According to your interpretation, “the solute molecules show a tendency to get more concentrated towards the bottom of the solution”, but IIT B team says they detected traces of ‘nanoparticles of starting materials’ floating only in the ‘upper layers’ of the solution! They say, these ‘top layer’ is transferred to new vial for making higher potencies! According to you, the ‘bottom layers’ are used.

      According to you. “most of the solute molecules gaining much higher speed than the solvent molecules rush to the next container (the newly available surface) along with the drop”. That means, the remaining solution will be free from drug molecules, at least during higher stages of dilutions. If the ‘drug molecules’ were the active principles of potentized drugs, the left over parts will not have any medicinal property. That means, 199th potency will not contain drug molecules, once one part of it was transferred to new vial for making 200th potency. In fact, each and every drop of 199th potency is kept as ‘back potency’ for later use. Kindly explain

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  3. Chandran Nambiar

    Reblogged this on Dialectical Homeopathy.

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  4. jtikari

    Though this is a niche scientific desertion not understandable by the uninitiated the basic finding is clear. Vigorous shaking and diluting to well beyond Avogadro’s limit still retains the essence of the original.

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    • Chandran Nambiar

      Sir, to say ‘essence of original’ still provides scope for ‘energy medicine’ interpretations. It is them who prefer to use terms ‘essence’, information’, vibration’ etc. To be specific and precise, it is better to say ‘molecular imprints’ of original. That clearly shows we are talking about the ‘complementary’ shape of drug molecules imprinted into nanostructures of water, which produce therapeutic effects by acting as ‘artificial binding sites’ for pathogenic molecules. Term ‘essence of original’ does not produce this specific meaning we expect from ‘molecular imprints’

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